Program Control Statements in .NET

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Program Control Statements
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switch(choice) { case 1: cout << "for is C++'s most versatile loop\n"; break; case 2: cout << "if is C++'s conditional branch statement\n"; break; case 3: cout << "switch is C++'s multiway branch statement\n"; break; default: cout << "You must enter a number between 1 and 3\n"; } return 0; }
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Help on: 1 for 2 if 3 switch Enter choice (1-3): 2 if is C++'s conditional branch statement
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Technically, the break statement is optional, although most applications of the switch will use it When encountered within the statement sequence of a case, the break statement causes program flow to exit from the entire switch statement and resume at the next statement outside the switch However, if a break statement does not end the statement sequence associated with a case, then all the statements at and below the matching case will be executed until a break (or the end of the switch) is encountered For example, study the following program carefully Can you figure out what it will display on the screen
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#include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int i; for(i=0; i<5; i++) { switch(i) { case 0: cout << "less than 1\n"; case 1: cout << "less than 2\n"; case 2: cout << "less than 3\n";
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case 3: cout << "less than 4\n"; case 4: cout << "less than 5\n"; } cout << '\n'; } return 0; }
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This program displays the following output:
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less less less less less less less less less than than than than than than than than than 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5
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less than 3 less than 4 less than 5 less than 4 less than 5 less than 5
As this program illustrates, execution will continue into the next case if no break statement is present You can have empty cases, as shown in this example:
switch(i) { case 1: case 2: case 3: do_something(); break; case 4: do_something_else(); break;
In this fragment, if i has the value 1, 2, or 3, then do_something( ) is called If i has the value 4, then do_something_else( ) is called The "stacking" of cases, as shown in this example, is very common when several cases share common code
Program Control Statements
Nested switch Statements
It is possible to have a switch as part of the statement sequence of an outer switch Even if the case constants of the inner and outer switch contain common values, no conflicts will arise For example, the following code fragment is perfectly acceptable:
switch(ch1) { case 'A': cout << "This A is part of outer switch"; switch(ch2) { case 'A': cout << "This A is part of inner switch"; break; case 'B': // } break; case 'B': //
C++ specifies that at least 256 levels of nesting be allowed for switch statements Frankly, few programs ever require anywhere near 256 levels of nesting
The while Loop
while is another of C++ s loop statements
Another loop is the while The general form of the while loop is while(expression) statement; where statement may be a single statement or a block of statements The expression defines the condition that controls the loop, and it may be any valid expression The statement is performed while the condition is true When the condition becomes false, program control passes to the line immediately following the loop The next program illustrates the while in a short but sometimes fascinating program Virtually all computers support an extended character set beyond that defined by ASCII The extended characters, if they exist, often include special characters such as foreign language symbols and scientific notations The ASCII characters use values that are less than 128 The extended character set begins at 128 and continues to 255 This program prints all characters between 32 (which is a space) and 255 When you run this program, you will most likely see some very interesting characters
/* This program displays all printable characters, including the extended character set, if one exists */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { unsigned char ch;
ch = 32; while(ch) { cout << ch; ch++; } return 0; }
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