C++ from the Ground Up in .NET

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C++ from the Ground Up
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Notice how the program checks for the entry of a blank line The gets( ) function returns a zero-length string if the only key you press is ENTER This means that the first byte in that string will be the null character A null value is always false, thus allowing the conditional expression to be true
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An Example Using String Arrays
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Arrays of strings are commonly used for handling tables of information One such application is an employee database that stores the name, telephone number, hours worked per pay period, and hourly wage of each employee To create such a program for a staff of ten employees, you would define these four arrays (the first two of which are string arrays):
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char name[10][80]; char phone[10][20]; float hours[10]; float wage[10]; // // // // this array holds employee names their phone numbers hours worked per week wage
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To enter information about each employee, you could use a function like enter( ), as shown here:
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// Enter information void enter() { int i; char temp[80]; for(i=0; i<10; i++) { cout << "Enter last name: "; cin >> name[i]; cout << "Enter phone number: "; cin >> phone[i]; cout << "Enter number of hours worked: "; cin >> hours[i]; cout << "Enter wage: "; cin >> wage[i]; } }
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Once information has been entered, the database can report the data and calculate the amount of pay each employee is to receive, using the report( ) function, as shown here:
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Arrays and Strings
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// Display report void report() { int i; for(i=0; i<10; i++) { cout << name[i] << ' ' << phone[i] << '\n'; cout << "Pay for the week: " << wage[i] * hours[i]; cout << '\n'; } }
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The entire employee database program is shown next Pay special attention to how each array is accessed This version of the employee database program is not particularly useful, because the information is lost when the program is terminated Later in this book, however, you will learn how to store information in a disk file
// A simple employee database program #include <iostream> using namespace std; char name[10][80]; char phone[10][20]; float hours[10]; float wage[10]; // // // // this array holds employee names their phone numbers hours worked per week wage
int menu(); void enter(), report(); int main() { int choice; do { choice = menu(); // get selection switch(choice) { case 0: break; case 1: enter(); break; case 2: report(); break; default: cout << "Try again\n\n"; } } while(choice != 0); return 0; } // Return a user's selection
int menu() { int choice; cout << "0 Quit\n"; cout << "1 Enter information\n"; cout << "2 Report information\n"; cout << "\nChoose one: "; cin >> choice; return choice; } // Enter information void enter() { int i; char temp[80]; for(i=0; i<10; i++) { cout << "Enter last name: "; cin >> name[i]; cout << "Enter phone number: "; cin >> phone[i]; cout << "Enter number of hours worked: "; cin >> hours[i]; cout << "Enter wage: "; cin >> wage[i]; } } // Display report void report() { int i;
C++ from the Ground Up
for(i=0; i<10; i++) { cout << name[i] << ' ' << phone[i] << '\n'; cout << "Pay for the week: " << wage[i] * hours[i]; cout << '\n'; } }
Pointers
C++ from the Ground Up
ointers are without a doubt one of the most important and troublesome aspects of C++ In fact, a large measure of C++ s power is derived from pointers For example, they allow C++ to support such things as linked lists and dynamic memory allocation They also provide one means by which a function can alter the contents of an argument However, these and other uses of pointers will be discussed in subsequent chapters In this chapter, you will learn the basics about pointers, see how to manipulate them, and discover how to avoid some potential troubles
In a few places in this chapter, it is necessary to refer to the size of several of C++ s basic data types For the sake of discussion, assume that characters are one byte in length, integers are four bytes long, floats are four bytes long, and doubles have a length of eight bytes Thus, we will be assuming a typical 32-bit environment
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