} sloc++; q[sloc] = i; } The scope resolution operator :: qualifies a member name with its class in .NET framework

Making Data Matrix ECC200 in .NET framework } sloc++; q[sloc] = i; } The scope resolution operator :: qualifies a member name with its class

} sloc++; q[sloc] = i; } The scope resolution operator :: qualifies a member name with its class
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C++ from the Ground Up
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The :: is called the scope resolution operator Essentially, it tells the compiler that this version of qput( ) belongs to the queue class Or, put differently, :: states that this qput( ) is in queue s scope Several different classes can use the same function names The compiler knows which function belongs to which class because of the scope resolution operator and the class name Member functions can only be invoked relative to a specific object To call a member function from a part of your program that is outside the class, you must use the object s name and the dot operator For example, this calls init( ) on object ob1:
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queue ob1, ob2; ob1init();
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The invocation ob1init( ) causes init( ) to operate on ob1 s copy of the data Keep in mind that ob1 and ob2 are two separate objects This means, for example, that initializing ob1 does not cause ob2 to also be initialized The only relationship ob1 has with ob2 is that it is an object of the same type When one member function calls another member function of the same class, it can do so directly, without using an object and the dot operator In this case, the compiler already knows which object is being operated upon It is only when a member function is called by code that is outside the class that the object name and the dot operator must be used By the same reasoning, a member function can refer directly to a member variable, but code outside the class must refer to the variable through an object and the dot operator The program shown here puts together all the pieces and missing details, and illustrates the queue class:
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#include <iostream> using namespace std; // This creates the class queue class queue { int q[100]; int sloc, rloc; public: void init(); void qput(int i); int qget(); }; // Initialize the queue void queue::init() {
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Introducing the Class
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rloc = sloc = 0; } // Put an integer into the queue void queue::qput(int i) { if(sloc==100) { cout << "Queue is full\n"; return; } sloc++; q[sloc] = i; } // Get an integer from the queue int queue::qget() { if(rloc == sloc) { cout << "Queue underflow\n"; return 0; } rloc++; return q[rloc]; } int main() { queue a, b; ainit(); binit(); aqput(10); bqput(19); aqput(20); bqput(1); cout << "Contents of queue a: "; cout << aqget() << " "; cout << aqget() << "\n"; cout << "Contents of queue b: "; cout << bqget() << " "; cout << bqget() << "\n"; return 0; }
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// create two queue objects
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This program displays the following output:
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Contents of queue a: 10 20 Contents of queue b: 19 1
C++ from the Ground Up
Keep in mind that the private members of a class are accessible only by functions that are members of that class For example, a statement like
arloc = 0;
could not be included in the main( ) function of the program
The General Form of a class
All classes are declared in a fashion similar to the queue class just described The general form of a class declaration is shown here class class-name { private data and functions public: public data and functions } object-list; Here class-name specifies the name of the class This name becomes a new type name that can be used to create objects of the class You can also create objects of the class by specifying them immediately after the class declaration in object-list, but this is optional Once a class has been declared, objects can be created where needed
A Closer Look at Class Member Access
How to access class members is the cause of considerable confusion for beginners For this reason, we will take a closer look at it here Consider the following simple class:
// Demonstrate class member access #include <iostream> using namespace std; class myclass { int a; // private data public: int b; // public data void setab(int i); // public functions int geta(); void reset(); }; void myclass::setab(int i) { a = i; // refer directly to a b = i*i; // refer directly to b } int myclass::geta() { return a; // refer directly to a }
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