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PROCESSING TEXT, FILES, AND XML
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name and a description string. Next let s look at a fragment of document we re going to process:
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<command:details> <command:name> Add-Content </command:name> <maml:description> <maml:para> Adds to the content(s) of the specified item(s) </maml:para> </maml:description> <maml:copyright> <maml:para></maml:para> </maml:copyright> <command:verb>add</command:verb> <command:noun>content</command:noun> <dev:version></dev:version> </command:details>
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PowerShell help text is stored in MAML (Microsoft Assistance Markup Language) format. From simple examination of the fragment, we can see that the name of a command is stored in the command:name element and the description is stored in a maml:description element inside a maml:para element. The basic approach we ll use is to look for the command tag, extract and save the command name, and then capture the description in the description element that immediately follows the command name element. This means that we ll use a state-machine pattern to process the document. A state machine usually implies using the switch statement, so this example is also a good opportunity to use the control structures in the PowerShell language a bit more. The function is shown in listing 10.5.
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Listing 10.5 Select-Help
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function Select-Help ($pat = ".") Declare function { $cmdHlp="Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.Management.dll-Help.xml" $doc = "$PSHOME\$cmdHlp"
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$settings = new-object System.Xml.XmlReaderSettings $settings.ProhibitDTD = $false $reader = [xml.xmlreader]::create($doc, $settings)
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Set up paths
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$name = $null $capture_name = $false $capture_description = $false $finish_line = $false while ($reader.Read()) { switch ($reader.NodeType)
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Set up XMl reader
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Initialize variables
XML PROCESSING
Process
element ([Xml.XmlNodeType]::Element) { switch ($reader.Name) Process { command:name "command:name" { $capture_name = $true break Process } maml:description "maml:description" { $capture_description = $true break Process } maml:para "maml:para" { if ($capture_description) { $finish_line = $true; } } } break Process } end element ([Xml.XmlNodeType]::EndElement) { if ($capture_name) { $capture_name = $false } if ($finish_description) { $finish_line = $false $capture_description = $false } break } Process ([Xml.XmlNodeType]::Text) { captured name if ($capture_name) { $name = $reader.Value.Trim() Trim name } string elseif ($finish_line -and $name) { $msg = $name + ": " + $reader.Value.Trim() if ($msg -match $pat) Check against { pattern $msg } $name = $null } break }
} } $reader.close() }
Close XML reader
PROCESSING TEXT, FILES, AND XML
Once again, this is a long piece of code, so we ll walk through it a piece at a time. The
$pat parameter B will contain the pattern to search for. If no argument is supplied
then the default argument will match everything. Next, we set up the name of the document C to search in the PowerShell installation directory. Then we create the XmlReader object D as in the previous examples. Since we re using a state machine, we need to set up E some state variables. The $name variable will be used to hold the name of the cmdlet and the others will hold the state of the processing. We ll read through the document one node at a time and switch on the node type. Unrecognized node types are just ignored. First, we ll process the Element F nodes. We ll use a nested switch statement to perform different actions based on the type of element. Finding a command:name element G starts the matching process. When we see a maml:description element H, we re capturing the beginning of a MAML description field, so we indicate that we want to capture the description. When we see the maml:para I element, we need to handle the embedded paragraph in the description element. In the end tag J of an element, we ll reset some of the state variables if they ve been set. And finally, we need to extract the information 1) we re interested in out of the element. We ve captured the cmdlet name of the element, but we want to remove 1! any leading and trailing spaces, so we ll use the [string] Trim() method. Now we have both the cmdlet name and the description string. If it matches the pattern the caller specified 1@, output it. Again, the last thing to do is to close the XML reader 1# so we don t waste resources. But where are the pipelines, we ask Neither of these last two examples has taken advantage of PowerShell s pipelining capability. In the next section, we ll remedy this omission. 10.3.3 Processing XML documents in a pipeline Pipelining is one of the signature characteristics of shell environments in general, and PowerShell in particular. Since the previous examples did not take advantage of this feature, we ll look at how it can be applied now. We re going to write a function that scans all of the PowerShell help files, both the text about topics and the XML files. For example, let s search for all of the help topics that mention the word scriptblock .
PS (1) > search-help scriptblock about_Display about_Types Get-Process Group-Object Measure-Command Select-Object Trace-Command ForEach-Object Where-Object
This tool provides a simple, fast way to search for all of the help topics that contain a particular pattern. The source for the function is shown in listing 10.6.
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