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CHAPTER 1 1
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GETTING FANCY .NET AND WINFORMS
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Listing 11.1 Get-Assemblies function
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function Get-Assemblies { [AppDomain]::CurrentDomain.GetAssemblies() }
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Once we have the list of assemblies, we can use the GetTypes() method on the assembly object to get all of the types in the assembly. We ll wrap this in a function as well, as shown in listing 11.2.
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Listing 11.2 Get-Types function
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function Get-Types ($Pattern=".") { Get-Assemblies | %{ $_.GetExportedTypes() } | where {$_ -match $Pattern} }
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This function will get the full names of all of the types in each assembly and match them against the pattern provided in the function argument (which defaults to match everything). Let s use this function to find all of the types that have the namespace prefix System.Timers.
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PS (1) > Get-Types ^system\.timers | %{ $_.FullName } System.Timers.ElapsedEventArgs System.Timers.ElapsedEventHandler System.Timers.Timer System.Timers.TimersDescriptionAttribute
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In this example, we searched through all of the assemblies and found the five types that matched the regular expression we specified. (There are enough types loaded in PowerShell that this can take a while to run.) Once we know how to get all of the types, let s explore the members of those types. We want to see all of the methods defined on all of the types in the System.Timers namespace that have the word begin in their name. To make this task easier, we ll define a couple of filters to help us with it. Here s what we want the output to look like:
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PS (1) > Get-Types ^system\.timers | Select-Members begin | >> Show-Members -method >> [System.Timers.ElapsedEventHandler]:: System.IAsyncResult BeginI nvoke(System.Object, System.Timers.ElapsedEventArgs, System.Asyn cCallback, System.Object) [System.Timers.Timer]:: Void BeginInit()
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In the output, we see that two methods match our requirements the BeginInvoke() method on System.Timers.ElapsedEventHandler and BeginInit() on System.Timers.Timer. Now let s look at the filters we used in this example. The first is a filter that will dump all of the members whose names match a regular expression. The code for this filter is shown in listing 11.3.
Listing 11.3 Select-Members filter
filter Select-Members ($Pattern = ".") { $_.getmembers() | {$_ match $Pattern } }
By now, the operation of this filter should be obvious, so we won t bother explaining it. The second filter deals with the presentation of the results, since the default presentation for the member information is not all that it might be. This filter is shown in listing 11.4.
Listing 11.4 Show-Members filter
filter Show-Members ([switch] $Method) { if (!$Method or $_.MemberType -match "method") { "[{0}]:: {1}" -f $_.declaringtype, $_ } }
The operation of the filter is very straightforward. If -method is specified, only methods will be displayed. The member to be displayed will be formatted into a string displaying the type containing the method and the name of the method. Now that we ve covered finding types pretty thoroughly, we can move to the next step and create instances of the types we ve found. 11.1.4 Creating instances of types Now that we can find types, we need to know how to create instances of these types, since most of the work is done by instances (although there are some types such as [math] that only have static members). For example, before we can search using the [regex] type, we need to create an instance of that type from a pattern string.
AUTHOR S NOTE
Yes, [regex] has static members too we saw that in chapter 10 but secretly the static members are creating instances under the covers. Sneaky critters aren t they
CHAPTER 1 1
GETTING FANCY .NET AND WINFORMS
The cmdlet name
The name of type to create
The arguments to the type s constructor
New-Object [-TypeName ] <String > [[ -ArgumentList ] <Object [] >]
Figure 11.1 The New-Object cmdlet parameters
The New-Object cmdlet is the preferred way to do it. Figure 11.1 shows the signature for this cmdlet. Be careful. While the signature for the cmdlet is pretty simple, it can be more difficult to use than you might think. People who are used to programming in languages such as C# have a tendency to use this cmdlet like the new operator in those languages. As a consequence, they tend to write expressions like:
New-Object String($x,1,3)
Unfortunately, writing it this way obscures the fact that it s a cmdlet, making things confusing. It will work fine, but it looks too much like a function call in other programming languages, and that leads people to misinterpret what s actually happening. As we saw in figure 11.1, the syntax for New-Object is
New-Object [-TypeName] <String> [[-ArgumentList] <Object[]>]
so the previous example could be written like:
New-Object -TypeName string -ArgumentList $x,1,3
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