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Working with generic types In version 2.0 of .NET, a new feature was introduced called generic types (or simply generics). Do you need to know how to create generic types in your day-to-day work with PowerShell For the most part, the answer is no. However, you may eventually encounter a situation where you do need to do it, at which point you can come back and reread this section. Generics introduce the idea of a type parameter. Instead of simply passing a bunch of arguments when you create an instance of a object, you can also pass in type parameters that determine the final types of some part of the object. This is rather confusing if you haven t encountered the concept before. As usual, an example should make things clearer. Generics are easiest to understand when we talk about creating collections. Prior to the introduction of generics, if we wanted to create a collection class we had to either write a new version of the class for each type of object we wanted it to store or we had to allow it to hold any type of object, which meant that we had to do our own error checking. With generics, we can write a collection that can be constrained to only containing integers or strings or hashtables. Again, if you aren t a programmer, you re probably thinking wow, this is so geeky I can t imagine caring about this. The reason that we, as PowerShell users, need to care is that some of the classes we may want to work with will use generic types. (PowerShell itself uses them a lot.) The first version of PowerShell makes this moderately easy if we re working with an existing instance of an object where the type parameterization has already been done. The type converter makes it all work. The problem arises if we have to create a generic instance. This is, well, hard. Let s look at an example. Creating an instance of a generic type To create an instance of a generic type, we need to have the full name of the generic type. This is made up of the name of the type, followed by a backtick and the number of type parameters. As this is hard to get right when typing it, we ll create a helper function to do the tricky bits for us. This function is shown in the next example:
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PS (1) > function New-GenericList ([type] $type) >> { >> $base = [System.Collections.Generic.List``1] >> $qt = $base.MakeGenericType(@($type)) >> , (new-object $qt) >> } >>
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We start with the base name of the collection s type, System.Collections.Generic.List. This type takes one type parameter, so we have to include ``1 in the name. This gives us an open generic type. It s called open because we haven t bound the type parameters yet.
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Now we need to create a closed type where the type parameters are bound. We do this with the MakeGenericType() method on the open generic type object. Once we have the closed type, we can use the New-Object cmdlet to create an instance of this type. Note the comma operator in front of the call to New-Object. This is necessary because we re creating a list inside a function and the default behavior in PowerShell is to stream the contents of a list rather than returning the list as an atomic object. Now let s use this function. We ll create a list with the type parameter [int].
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PS (2) > $intList = New-GenericList int
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Next we add numbers to the list, then display it.
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PS (3) PS (4) PS (5) 123 456 PS (6) 2 > $intList.Add(123) > $intList.Add(456) > $intList
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> $intList.count
When we try to add something that isn t a number, we get an error.
PS (7) > $intList.Add("abc") Cannot convert argument "0", with value: "abc", for "Add" t o type "System.Int32": "Cannot convert value "abc" to type "System.Int32". Error: "Input string was not in a correct f ormat."" At line:1 char:13 + $intList.Add( <<<< "abc")
If we add something that isn t a number but might be, the PowerShell type converter will conveniently convert it for us.
PS (8) > $intList.add("789") PS (9) > $intList[2] 789
When we check the target type, it s an integer. This gives us an expandable list like an ArrayList, but constrained to only holding integers.
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