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Listing 11.10 The script code for WinForms example
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[void][reflection.assembly]::LoadWithPartialName( "System.Windows.Forms") $form = New-Object Windows.Forms.Form $form.Text = "My First Form" $button = New-Object Windows.Forms.Button $button.text="Push Me!" $button.Dock="fill" $button.add_click({$form.close()}) $form.controls.add($button) $form.Add_Shown({$form.Activate()}) $form.ShowDialog()
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Since it s short enough to type at the command line, let s go through the code interactively. First we have to load the WinForms assembly, since it s not loaded into PowerShell by default.
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PS (1) > [void][reflection.assembly]::LoadWithPartialName( >> "System.Windows.Forms") >>
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All applications have to have a top-level form, so we ll create one and save it in the variable $form.
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PS (2) > $form = New-Object Windows.Forms.Form
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CHAPTER 1 1
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GETTING FANCY .NET AND WINFORMS
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We ll set the Text property on the form so that the title bar will display My First Form .
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PS (3) > $form.Text = "My First Form"
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Next we create a button and set the text to display in the button to Push Me! .
PS (4) > $button = New-Object Windows.Forms.Button PS (5) > $button.text="Push Me!"
We ll use the Dock property on the button control to tell the form layout manager that we want the button to fill the entire form.
PS (6) > $button.Dock="fill"
Now we need to add a behavior to the button. When we click the button, we want the form to close. We add this behavior by binding a scriptblock to the Click event on the button. Events are bound using special methods that take the form add_<eventName>.
PS (7) > $button.add_Click({$form.close()})
Be careful getting all of the parentheses and braces matched up. In the scriptblock we re adding, we ll call the Close() method on the form, which will end the application.
AUTHOR S NOTE
If you ve programmed with WinForms in other languages such as C# or Visual Basic, you may be curious about how this works. (If not, feel free to skip this note.) The add_Click() function corresponds to the Click event described in the MSDN documentation. PowerShell doesn t support the += notation for adding events so we have to use the corresponding add_Click() method. Now in general, events require an instance of System.Delegate. The Click event in particular requires a subclass of System.Delegate called System.EventHandler. While scriptblocks are not derived from that type, PowerShell knows how to automatically convert a scriptblock into an EventHandler object so it all works seamlessly. Unfortunately, the only subclass of delegate we support is System.EventHandler, and there are a lot of other types that derive from System.Delegate. This means that, in version 1 of PowerShell, you can t use scriptblocks with those other event types. Well, that s not quite true: It is possible to generate arbitrary delegate code for scriptblocks, but it requires some pathologically advanced scripting. However, for most scenarios you re likely to encounter, support for System.EventHandler is sufficient.
Now we need to add our button to the form. This is done by calling the Add() method on the Controls member of the form.
POWERSHELL AND GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES
PS (8) > $form.Controls.add($button)
When the form is first displayed, we want to make it the active form. That s what the next line does. It sets up an event handler that will activate the form when it s first shown.
PS (9) > $form.Add_Shown({$form.Activate()})
And now we want to show the form we ve built. There are two methods we could call. The first Show() displays the form and returns immediately. Unfortunately, this also means that the form closes immediately as well. This is because the form is running on the same thread as the command. When the command ends, so does the form. The way to get around this is to use the ShowDialog() method. This shows the form and then waits until the form is closed. This is what we want to do here. We call this method and PowerShell will seem to freeze.
PS (9) > $form.ShowDialog()
Somewhere on the desktop, a form that looks like figure 11.3 will appear. Once we locate the window, we can resize it and move it around and everything works fine. Finally, we ll click the Push Me! button, causing the form to disappear, and control will return to the PowerShell session. We ll see something like:
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