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CHAPTER 1 1
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GETTING FANCY .NET AND WINFORMS
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The last step is to do the math 1% to figure out the best size for the form, set the form, and display it using the ShowDialog() method. And there you have it, a basic calculator application. In fact, this isn t a very good calculator at all, it doesn t handle order of operations; it doesn t even chain calculations properly or handle the keyboard events. But it does demonstrate a number of useful techniques, both in PowerShell and in WinForms for building graphical applications. 11.3.6 Example: Displaying data A common activity in user interface programming is displaying collections of data. The Windows Forms framework makes this easy through a feature called data binding. Data binding is the ability to tell a control such as a grid to use a collection of objects as the data it should display. The programmer doesn t have to write any code; the control figures everything out by examining the data. PowerShell objects (PSObjects) also support data binding, so we can take the output from a pipeline and use that as the data source for a control. In this section, we ll work through a short script that does exactly this. We ll take the output of the Get-Process cmdlet and display it in a grid on a form. In the process, we ll look at a additional features of the TableLayoutPanel. The resulting form is shown in figure 11.6. The code that implements this form is shown in listing 11.14.
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Figure 11.6 What the PowerShell graphics process viewer form looks like. Clicking on any of the buttons will cause the data to be refreshed and sorted based on the property named by the button.
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Listing 11.14 The PowerShell graphical process viewer
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. winform $form = Form Form @{ Basic setup AutoSize=$true Text = "PowerShell Graphical Process Viewer" }
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$sortCriteria="ProcessName" function update ($sortCriteria="ProcessName") {
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Update scriptblock
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$grid.DataSource = New-Object Collections.ArrayList ` (,(gps | sort $sortCriteria | select name,id,handles,workingset,cpu)) $grid.CaptionText = "Process Data Sorted by $sortCriteria" $status.Text = "Last Updated on $(get-date | out-string)" -replace "`n" }
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Create
layout panel $table = form TableLayoutPanel @{ columncount=6 Dock="Fill" AutoSizeMode = "GrowOnly"; AutoSize = $true } $form.Controls.Add($table)
[void] $table.RowStyles.Add((style)) [void] $table.RowStyles.Add((style -percent 50)) 1..3 | %{ [void] $table.RowStyles.Add((style)) }
Set styles
1..4 | %{ [void] $table.ColumnStyles.Add((style column 17)) } $menu = new-menustrip $form { Create menus new-menu File { new-menuitem "Update" { update } new-separator new-menuitem "Quit" { $form.Close() } } new-menu Help { new-menuitem "About" { message ( "PowerShell Process Viewer`n`n" + "Windows Forms Demo Applet`n" + "From Windows PowerShell in Action`n" + "Manning Publications Co. 2006" ) } } } $table.controls.add($menu) $table.SetColumnSpan($menu, 6)
Create grid
control $grid = Form DataGrid @{ Dock="fill" CaptionText = "PowerShell Graphical Process Viewer" } $table.Controls.Add($grid); $table.SetColumnSpan($grid, 6)
function New-Button($label,$action)
New-button helper
CHAPTER 1 1
GETTING FANCY .NET AND WINFORMS
{ $b = form button @{text=$label; anchor = "left,right" } $b.add_Click($action); $table.Controls.Add($b); } New-Button New-Button New-Button New-Button New-Button "Name" {update ProcessName} "Id" {update Id} "Handles" {update Handles} "WorkingSet (WS)" {update WS} "CPU" {update cpu}
Make buttons
$status = form label @{ dock="fill" flatstyle="popup" borderstyle="fixed3d" } $table.Controls.Add($status); $table.SetColumnSpan($status, 6) Update $form.Add_Shown({$form.Activate()}) [void] $form.ShowDialog();
Show form
We begin the process viewer example with the standard preamble B, where we load the winform library and create the top-level form. Next we create the scriptblock C that will be used to update the form when a button is clicked. This is also used to update the form when it is first displayed. We create a TableLayoutPanel D to lay out all of our controls. We ll use the Style helper function E in the winform library to set up how the form will be resized. We want the grid to occupy most of the form space with the buttons and menus remaining at the top and bottom. Next we create the menus F, add them to the form, and create the actual DataGrid control G that will be used to display the information. We re going to have a bunch of buttons at the bottom, so we ll define a helper function New-Button H so we don t have to repeat the code. We use this function to create each of the operation buttons. The last thing to do is run the update scriptblock to fill the gird with an initial collection of data values and then display the form. And that s the end of the grid example. 11.3.7 Example: Using the GDI+ to do graphics The last example in this chapter involves actual graphics programming. All of the earlier WinForms examples have depended on the controls to do the drawing. Now we ll look at drawing directly with PowerShell. In the process, we ll see how to use the paint and timer events on a Form object. We ll also touch on some of the more sophisticated graphics feature in .NET.
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