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POWERSHELL AND GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES
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Graphics programming in Windows (at least in the post XP/Server 2003) world is done using a set of APIs called the GDI+. GDI stands for graphics device interface. It s the abstraction that Windows uses to hide the details of working with specific graphics hardware. In .NET, this API surfaces through the System.Drawing collection of namespaces. The particular example is a script that draws a spiral on a form. This form is shown in figure 11.7. The script draws a spiral out from the center of the form. It periodically redraws the form, changing the foreground and background colors on each iteration. This redraw is handled by the Timer event on the form. Resizing the form will also trigger the Paint event to cause the spiral to be redrawn. The script takes parameters that allow you to specify the opacity (or translucency) of the form, as well as its initial size and the amount of detail used in drawing the form. See listing 11.15.
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Figure 11.7 Screen capture of the PwrSpiral GDI+ example form. This form is drawn by a PowerShell script. It will redraw itself in a different color every 5 seconds. It can also be started such that it will be displayed as a transparent window.
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Listing 11.15 The annotated PwrSpiral.ps1 script.
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param( $opacity=1.0, $increment=50, $numRevs=20, $size=(500,500) )
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Script parameters
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. winform
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extra args if ($args) { throw 'param($opacity=1.0,$increment=50,$numRevs=20)' } Load WinForm library
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$colors = .{$args} red blue yellow green orange ` black cyan teal white purple gray $index=0 $color = $colors[$index++] $form = Form Form @{ TopMost=$true Opacity=$opacity Size=size $size[0] $size[1] }
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Set up colors
Build top-level form
CHAPTER 1 1
GETTING FANCY .NET AND WINFORMS
$myBrush = Drawing SolidBrush $color $pen = Drawing pen black @{Width=3} $rec = Drawing Rectangle 0,0,200,200
Build top-level form
function Spiral($grfx) Spiral function { $cx, $cy =$Form.ClientRectangle.Width, $Form.ClientRectangle.Height $iNumPoints = $numRevs * 2 * ($cx+$cy) $cx = $cx/2 $cy = $cy/2 $np = $iNumPoints/$numRevs $fAngle = $i*2.0*3.14159265 / $np $fScale = 1.0 - $i / $iNumPoints $x,$y = ($cx * (1.0 + $fScale * [math]::cos($fAngle))), ($cy * (1.0 + $fScale * [math]::Sin($fAngle))) for ($i=0; $i -lt $iNumPoints; $i += 50) { $fAngle = $i*2.0*[math]::pi / $np $fScale = 1.0 - $i / $iNumPoints $ox,$oy,$x,$y = $x,$y, ($cx * (1.0 + $fScale * [math]::cos($fAngle))), ($cy * (1.0 + $fScale * [math]::Sin($fAngle))) $grfx.DrawLine($pen, $ox, $oy, $x, $y) } } $handler = { $rec.width = $form.size.width $rec.height = $form.size.height $myBrush.Color = $color $formGraphics = $form.CreateGraphics() $formGraphics.FillRectangle($myBrush, $rec) $form.Text = "Color: $color".ToUpper() $color = $colors[$index++] $index %= $colors.Length $pen.Color = $color Spiral $formGraphics $formGraphics.Dispose() } $timer = New-Object system.windows.forms.timer $timer.interval = 5000 $timer.add_Tick($handler) $timer.Start()
Initialize values
Draw spiral
Timer event handler
Set up timer event
$Form.add_paint($handler)
Add paint handler
$form.Add_Shown({$form.Activate()}) [void] $form.ShowDialog()
Show form
POWERSHELL AND GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES
First define the parameters B for the script (remember, the param statement always has to be the first executable statement in the script). Opacity of a form is a built-in capability in the GDI+, allowing for some cool visual effects. An opacity of 1 is a solid form. The spiral is drawn using a series of line segments. The more segments there are, the smoother the curve, but the longer it takes to draw. This is controlled by the $increment parameter. The $numRevs parameter controls the number of revolutions used in drawing the spiral. The spiral will always fill the form, so the higher the number of revolutions, the closer together the curves will be. Checking $args C is a trick to check for extra parameters. If there are any extra parameters to the script, an error will be generated. Of course, we still need to load the basic assemblies and create a form to draw on, so we load the usual winform utility library D. We want the spiral to be drawn in a different color on each iteration, so set up a list E of the colors to loop through. The $index variable is used to keep track of the last color used. And now we ll create the objects F we need. We ll create a top-level form, passing in the size and opacity arguments to the script. Then we ll create a couple of drawing objects a brush to do the drawing and a rectangle to use for drawing the form background. The Spiral function G is the routine that does all of the drawing. It takes a graphics context to draw on and then uses the information about the number of revolutions and the increment to calculate the number of segments to draw. Once we have all of the basic information the number of points and the angle of rotation calculated H, we loop I, drawing each segment until the spiral is complete. We re using multivariable assignment in the loop to simplify the code and speed things up a bit. Next we ll create a scriptblock J that we can use as the event handler for triggering drawing the spiral. This handler creates the graphics object for drawing on the form, fills it with the background color, then calls the Spiral routine to draw on the graphics object. With the basic pieces in place, we can now create the timer control 1) and add it to the form to trigger the redraws. The script sets up the timer control s interval to redraw the form every 5 seconds. Any activity that triggers the paint 1! event will cause the spiral to be redrawn. For example, resizing the form will cause a new paint cycle. Finally, we show the form 1@, blocking it from view until it is closed. This example shows additional uses of the scriptblock as a timer event handler as well as using the [math] capabilities to do some fairly complex calculations. It s not a particularly practical application, but it give us the basics of how to write an application that graphs a sequence of values. For example, we could extend the calculator example from earlier in this chapter to do graphics. (We could, but we won t. We ll leave this as a rainy-day exercise for the reader.)
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