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Figure 13.3 Verifying that the certificates have been created from the Certificates snap-in.
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Of course, this is PowerShell, so there must be a way to verify this from the command line. We can do this using the PowerShell certificate provider by typing the following command:
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PS (13) > dir cert:\CurrentUser\My -codesigning | fl Subject Issuer Thumbprint FriendlyName NotBefore NotAfter Extensions : : : : : : : CN=PowerShell User CN=PowerShell Local Certificate Root 145F9E3BF835CDA7DC21BD07BDB26B7FCFEA0687 8/12/2006 6:34:31 PM 12/31/2039 3:59:59 PM {System.Security.Cryptography.Oid, System.Securit y.Cryptography.Oid}
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If the certificate was created, the output shows us the thumbprint of the certificate, which contains authentication data for PowerShell User . Now we have everything set up! We ve established a signing authority and issued ourselves a certificate. Now let s move on and sign some scripts. 13.4.4 Using a certificate to sign a script Now that we have a self-signed certificate, we can sign scripts. In this section, we ll go through the steps to do this. We ll also look at how to change the script execution policy to verify that our scripts are signed properly. Setting up a test script First, let s create an unsigned script that we can use for testing purposes:
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PS (16) > '"Hello there"' > test-script.ps1
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Now, assuming that our execution policy is currently set to something like RemoteSigned that lets us run local scripts, let s run test-script.ps1.
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PS (17) > ./test-script.ps1 Hello there
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Now change the execution policy to AllSigned and verify that we can t run unsigned scripts any longer. We ll use Set-ExecutionPolicy:
PS (18) > Set-ExecutionPolicy AllSigned
Now when we try to run the script, it will fail.
PS (19) > ./test-script.ps1 File C:\Temp\test-script.ps1 cannot be loaded. The file C:\Temp\ test-script.ps1 is not digitally signed. The script will not exe cute on the system. Please see "get-help about_signing" for more details.. At line:1 char:17 + ./test-script.ps1 <<<<
The error message tells us that the script is not signed and suggests a help topic that will explain what s going on. Now let s sign the script. Signing the test script First we need to get a certificate object to use to sign the script. We use the PowerShell certificate provider to do this.
PS (20) > $cert = @(Get-ChildItem cert:\CurrentUser\My ` >> -codesigning)[0] >> PS (21) > $cert Directory: Microsoft.PowerShell.Security\Certificate::Curren tUser\My Thumbprint ---------145F9E3BF835CDA7DC21BD07BDB26B7FCFEA0687 Subject ------CN=PowerShell User
This shows that we have a certificate object in $cert. Now we ll use the SetAuthenticodeSignature (remember, Tab-completion works on cmdlet names) cmdlet to sign this file:
PS (22) > Set-AuthenticodeSignature test-script.ps1 $cert Directory: C:\Temp SignerCertificate ----------------145F9E3BF835CDA7DC21BD07BDB26B7FCFEA0687 Status -----Valid Path ---test-sc...
This cmdlet returns the signature information for the signed file. Now let s try to run it.
PS (23) > ./test-script Do you want to run software from this untrusted publisher File C:\Temp\test-script.ps1 is published by CN=PowerShell User and is not trusted on your system. Only run scripts from trusted
SIGNING SCRIPTS
publishers. [V] Never run [D] Do not run [ ] Help(default is "D"): a Hello there
[R] Run once
[A] Always run
Notice that we are prompted to confirm that this signing authority should be trusted. Assuming we trust ourselves, we answer that we should always trust the signing authority we created. Now let s run this script again.
PS (24) > ./test-script Hello there
This time, we didn t get prompted, since we ve told the system that this certificate should always be trusted. So what exactly happened to the script It used to be one line long. Let s look at the beginning of the script. We ll use the Select-Object cmdlet to get the first 10 lines of the file:
PS (25) > gc test-script.ps1 | Select-Object -first 10 "Hello there" # # # # # # # # SIG # Begin signature block MIIEMwYJKoZIhvcNAQcCoIIEJDCCBCACAQExCzAJBgUrDgMCGgUAMGkGCisGAQQB gjcCAQSgWzBZMDQGCisGAQQBgjcCAR4wJgIDAQAABBAfzDtgWUsITrck0sYpfvNR AgEAAgEAAgEAAgEAAgEAMCEwCQYFKw4DAhoFAAQU0O2MiFZBx/X1iLwTml3Dg6o3 iOygggI9MIICOTCCAaagAwIBAgIQ0QlVf5hB+oZM3DApkhHZMTAJBgUrDgMCHQUA MCwxKjAoBgNVBAMTIVBvd2VyU2hlbGwgTG9jYWwgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgUm9vdDAe Fw0wNjA4MTMwMTM0MzFaFw0zOTEyMzEyMzU5NTlaMBoxGDAWBgNVBAMTD1Bvd2Vy U2hlbGwgVXNlcjCBnzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEAtB75pWZTD5Jo
How long is the file Let s check:
PS (26) > (gc test-script.ps1).count 27
Signing the file increased the size from one line to 27. As you can see, signing a file adds a lot of ugly comments to the end of the file. We can use the Get-AuthenticodeSignature to retrieve the signature information from the file:
PS (28) > Get-AuthenticodeSignature test-script.ps1 | fl SignerCertificate : [Subject] CN=PowerShell User [Issuer] CN=PowerShell Local Certificate Root [Serial Number] D109557F9841FA864CDC30299211D931 [Not Before] 8/12/2006 6:34:31 PM
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