barcode vb.net code Figure 13.6 In this figure, we see the dialog to set the password used to secure the private key. in Visual C#.NET

Printer Code 39 Extended in Visual C#.NET Figure 13.6 In this figure, we see the dialog to set the password used to secure the private key.

Figure 13.6 In this figure, we see the dialog to set the password used to secure the private key.
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SIGNING SCRIPTS
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Choose a password you can remember, enter it twice and click Next. Step 3 Specify the name for the pfx file Now we enter the name of the file we want to create with a .pfx extensions. We ll call it mycert.pfx . We click Next, verify the information, and click Finish. The export is done. Step 4 Verify that the pfx file was created Now we ll verify that the file was created. Enter the following command:
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PS (1) > Certmgr.exe CertMgr Succeeded PS (2) > dir *.pfx Directory: Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem::C:\Temp Mode ----a--LastWriteTime ------------8/13/2006 5:38 PM Length Name ------ ---1768 mycert.pfx
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And there it is: mycert.pfx as requested. Using the pfx file to sign a file Now we can use this file to get a signing certificate by using the Get-PfxCertificate cmdlet.
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PS (3) > $cert = Get-PfxCertificate mycert.pfx Enter password: ******** PS (4) > $cert Thumbprint ---------145F9E3BF835CDA7DC21BD07BDB26B7FCFEA0687 Subject ------CN=PowerShell User
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Let s use this certificate object to re-sign the file we tampered with earlier:
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PS (5) > Set-AuthenticodeSignature test-script.ps1 $cert Directory: C:\Temp SignerCertificate ----------------145F9E3BF835CDA7DC21BD07BDB26B7FCFEA0687 Status -----Valid Path ---test-sc...
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Next, make sure that the execution policy is set to AllSigned, and then run the script.
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PS (6) > Set-ExecutionPolicy allsigned PS (7) > ./test-script.ps1 Hello there Hello there PS (8) >
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CHAPTER 1 3
SECURITY, SECURITY, SECURITY
The script runs properly. There is no prompt because we ve already told the system that we trust this signing authority. This is the end of our discussion of signing as well as the overall discussion on securing PowerShell installations. In the next (and final) part of this chapter, we re going to shift our focus away from securing PowerShell and over to writing secure PowerShell scripts.
WRITING SECURE SCRIPTS
As we ve seen, the PowerShell team has been very careful in designing the various security features in the PowerShell runtime.
AUTHOR S NOTE
In fact, we (the PowerShell team) have been described as obsessive in our security focus. Here s a quote from Microsoft security guru Michael Howard: I want folks to realize that the PowerShell guys are very, VERY savvy when it comes to security. In fact, they are borderline anal. Actually, they re not borderline at all.
In the end, however, the whole point of PowerShell is to allow people to create and run scripts that will automate system administration tasks. As a consequence, vulnerable or badly written scripts could inadvertently lead to substantial damage to the system. All the security features in the world can t defend us from badly written scripts, so we re going to look at some of the techniques we can use to make our code more robust. 13.5.1 Using the SecureString class At some point, we ll want to write a script that acquires passwords or other sensitive data such as credit card numbers. PowerShell, through .NET, provides a number of features for dealing with sensitive data in a secure way. In this section, we re going to discuss how to use those features to write scripts that can deal with sensitive information. Most of the sensitive data we ll be dealing with will be in the form of strings. When a string is created in .NET, the runtime retains that string in memory so it can efficiently reuse it. Even after we are done with the data, the string will remain in memory until it is finally cleaned up by the garbage collector. So what s the big deal if an attacker can access the process s memory, we re already compromised, right That s true if the information only stays in memory; however, there are a number of ways that it could end up being persisted to the disk. For one thing, Windows uses virtual memory. This means that blocks of memory are periodically paged to disk. Once it s on the disk, it potentially becomes available to applications that can do raw accesses to the disk. Now, this may require the attacker to steal your hard disk and use forensic tools to analyze it but it is possible and has happened before. Similarly, using hibernate on a laptop will write an image of memory to the disk. Finally, the string could wind up on the disk due to a crash dump, where an image of the computer s memory is dumped to the disk during a system crash.
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