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Creating Code 39 in C#.NET A: COMPARING POWERSHELL

APPENDIX A: COMPARING POWERSHELL
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scripts that set a number of variables and then exit. They won t work when run from PowerShell because the cmd.exe process that s created to run them will exit when the batch file has completed, discarding any changes. We can also run any of the cmd built-ins from PowerShell using cmd /c . Here s an example of using cmd.exe for command from PowerShell:
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PS (1) > cmd /c 'for %f in (*) do @echo %f' a.txt b.txt c.txt d.txt
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Now let s use the cmd.exe for command to generate a set of files that we ll then process using the PowerShell foreach statement. Here s what this looks like:
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PS (2) > foreach ($f in cmd /c 'for %f in (*) do @echo %f') >> { $f.ToUpper() } >> A.TXT B.TXT C.TXT D.TXT
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From this, we can see that, as we re learning to use PowerShell, we don t have to abandon all of the hard-won knowledge we ve accumulated with cmd.exe scripting over the years. We can mix and match as we see fit.
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POWERSHELL AND UNIX SHELLS
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In this section, we ll look at examples where we compare PowerShell to the UNIX shells, in particular the Bourne shell family (sh, ksh, bash, and so on). While inspired by these shells, PowerShell is very different from the UNIX shells. The most obvious difference is that PowerShell uses objects as the basic model of interaction instead of strings. Second, the list of built-in commands is both larger and user extensible. There is no difference between the built-in commands and user-created extension cmdlets. This model is necessitated by and a consequence of the decision to use objects. The out-of-process extension model used by traditional shells is simply impractical for an object-based shell. Even using XML as an intermediate representation is impractical due to the cost of serializing and deserializing each object. Instead of doing a feature-by-feature comparison between PowerShell and the UNIX shells, the approach we ll use in this section is to work through a set of illustrative examples of each.
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A.2.1
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Example: Stopping all processes To stop all processes that begin with the letter p on a UNIX system, we would have to type the following shell command line:
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$ ps -e | grep " p" | awk '{ print $1 }' | xargs kill
APPENDIX A: COMPARING POWERSHELL
The ps command retrieves a list of processes and sends the output text to grep. The grep command searches the string for processes whose names begin with p . The output of grep is, in turn, sent to the awk command, which selects the first column in the input text (which is in the process ID) and then passes those to the xargs command. The xargs command then executes the kill command for each process it receives as input. Beyond the complexity of the number of stages that need to be executed, this command is also fragile. The problem is that the ps command behaves differently on different systems (and sometimes on different versions of the same system). For example, the -e flag on ps may not be present, or if the processed command is not in column 1 of the output, this command-line procedure will fail. Now let s look at the equivalent command in PowerShell. The corresponding command is both simpler and more understandable.
PS (1) > get-process p* | stop-process
This command line simply says get the processes whose names start with p and stop them . The Get-Process cmdlet takes an argument that matches the process name; the objects returned by Get-Process are passed directly to the Stop-Process cmdlet, which acts on those objects by stopping them. Now let s look at a more sophisticated example. A.2.2 Example: Stopping a filtered list of processes Let s tackle a more complex task: find the processes that use more than 10MB of memory and kill them . The UNIX commands to do this are:
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