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tinuity of test procedures can help by ensuring that the knowledge and experience of the development and field trial teams can be used effectively during commissioning
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Operations, maintenance, and troubleshooting Operational ATM networks will rely on a combination of network management capability, for normal operation, and additional test equipment to perform maintenance and troubleshooting tasks These are examined in a following section, titled Testing in Operational ATM Networks 1123 Out-of-service vs in-service testing
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Out-of-service testing is used during equipment development, and installation and commissioning of equipment and services It also is used in operational networks where in-service techniques have not successfully found the cause of a problem (Figure 114) Test equipment is connected to a network link and used to generate test traffic to the system under test (SUT) The SUT can be a piece of equipment or section of the network The responses of the SUT are then measured and analyzed for protocol correctness and acceptable performance With individual equipment or protocols, this approach can be formalized as conformance testing, to verify precisely through a series of standard test cases whether a standard is being conformed to or not The standard cases are called automated test suites (ATS) and are defined by ATM Forum The test equipment must emulate remaining elements of the network in order to test how the SUT reacts to both normal and errored protocol behavior This technique is used particularly with protocols such as ATM signaling and is vital, particularly where multivendor interoperability is required in the network
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Loopback test cell flow Test cell flows
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VPC/VCC end points
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Figure 114 Out-of-service and in-service testing
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ATM Testing 248 Wide Area Networks
Network performance can be measured by simulating traffic with ATM cell streams containing test data such as sequence numbers and timestamps These can help create a detailed characterization of the SUT s behavior; the tests can be enhanced by adding background traffic or loading other network ports The ITU-T currently is specifying a test cell (ITU-T O191) for precisely this purpose; key issues remain to be resolved, however, including how to realistically model the traffic distributions for the test traffic In-service testing is used in operational ATM networks to verify operation, gather statistics, and troubleshoot problems In-service test methods center on monitoring the signals at one or more points around the network, and measuring performance and faults through detecting alarms and errors and decoding traffic Ideally, in-service testing should be nonintrusive, ie, test access should be passive, causing no change to the monitored signal As explained in a later subsection, Test Access, this is not always possible Intrusive test methods, such as injection of additional test traffic onto a connection, will modify the real traffic profile and could cause resource problems that invalidate the measurements Other, less intrusive techniques could include measuring the performance of a dedicated test connection that uses the same route and assuming that the performance will be similar; these also might not be accurate, depending on how switches buffer and prioritize different traffic streams Ideally nonintrusive methods can be used for in-service performance measurement A key issue here is how to measure delay between two remote points accurately without passing timestamped cells between them
1124 Testing in operational ATM networks
Discussion of testing actual, operating ATM networks will address four major topics: built-in switch statistics and MIBs, operation and maintenance (OAM), test equipment for operational networks, and test access
Built-in switch statistics and MIBs Ideally, the network management system will be able to gather sufficient traffic, error, and alarm indications from the switches to successfully operate and troubleshoot the network To ensure that each switch gathers compatible information that can be accessed by network management systems, the ATM Forum and IETF are defining MIBs (Management Information Base), which codify the information required to manage the network For private networks, MIBs can be accessed using SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) from the IETF In public carrier networks, Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) from ITU-T is mostly used The major MIBs for ATM networks are:
ATM MIB for managing ATM devices, networks, and services (IETF RFC 1695) ATM-RMON MIB for ATM remote monitoring extensions to the RMON MIB for LANs (IETF and ATM Forum draft) ILMI MIB for Physical and ATM layer configuration and statistics in each ATM switch, including ATM address registration (ATM Forum)
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