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scripts), allowing test procedures to be automated and understood by all levels of user, no matter how much or how little knowledge of ATM they actually might have
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Portable and rugged equipment, allowing easy transportation to where it is needed in the knowledge that it will operate reliably once it gets there
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Additional features that also may be useful for deploying and operating specific services are identified in the following section 113 ATM Service Testing This section will now look at the most common ATM-based services and their testing needs
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1131 Cell relay service
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The basic ATM service is called cell relay Characteristics of a cell relay service include:
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Cell-based information transfer Connection-oriented transmission Support of both CBR and VBR applications AAL usage as appropriate
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This service essentially involves the transport of data, in 48-byte groups, over a connection across an ATM network (see Figure 115) Initially, permanent connections (PVCs) are specified, but as signaling standards develop, there should be no barrier to use of switched connections (SVCs) Definition of the cell relay service allows for both constant and variable bit-rate applications, and the use of the Adaptation layer as appropriate in the terminal equipment Responsibility for the actual user service and applications will be with the user For the network operator of a cell relay service, testing will focus on fault handling
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Network A
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ATM UNI B-CPE
Network B
ATM UNI
ATM network
ATM UNI or B-ICI
ATM network
B-CPE
CRS User ATM PHY
Figure 115 Cell relay service
CRS User ATM PHY ATM PHY ATM PHY
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ATM Testing 252 Wide Area Networks
verification and performance testing of the allocated ATM connections In particular, this will include verifying the use of the correct VPI/VCIs, characterizing the bandwidth and traffic distribution of the service, and ensuring that it meets its QoS guarantees A tester suitable for cell relay, therefore, must be concerned primarily with fault and performance management at the ATM and Physical layers To make these tests possible, the tester must include:
One or two full-duplex test ports at the interface rate or rates in the network ATM and Physical layer test capability that includes alarm and error generation and measurement; QoS measurement, both in-service and out-of-service; and ATM layer traffic characterization AAL test capability as appropriate
Many tests, particularly of a general transmission nature, can be done by accessing a single monitor point for in-service analysis, or performing out-of-service stimulus/response tests These tests then can be enhanced by adding a second port, perhaps where several different ATM interface types are used, to allow correlation of measurements at multiple points in the network and testing of the switching functions between the two interfaces If appropriate, AAL support also should be included
1132 ATM WAN backbone services Frame relay interworking Frame relay is a public WAN service used predominantly
for LAN interconnection It is currently the networking technology experiencing the most growth; services are available from most network operators throughout the world It also is playing a key role in the growth of the Internet, being a significant portion of the network infrastructure of many Internet service providers (ISPs) Frame relay is a connection-oriented technology based on multiplexing and switching variable-length frames of data and control information In general, connections are permanently set up (PVC), but switched (SVC) connections are now being offered Frame relay was developed as a simplified form of the X25 packet network, taking advantage of the higher quality of today s transmission lines, which allows removing most of the error checking and retransmission techniques that had been necessary to give reliable connections over poor-quality analog circuits Frame relay therefore is designed to give major performance improvements over X25 and use most of the infrastructure already in place, making it relatively inexpensive to install Frame relay also can be used to provide more effective network usage than that provided by dedicated leased-line services By providing frame multiplexing and switching, with the concept of bandwidth on demand (similar to ATM), it is possible to offer a comparable service to many users at lower cost than their existing connections Frame relay s X25 and leased-line origins have allowed network operators to offer connections at rates between 56 kbps to 2 Mbps The latest network equipment now supports Frame Relay at rates up to 45 Mbps; several network providers, particularly some ISPs, have taken advantage of this in preference to using ATM at these rates Frame relay standards are available from ITU-T, ANSI, TTC, and the Frame Relay Forum industry interest group
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