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and error conditions can be forced to ensure that appropriate action occurs in both networks Multichannel generation and analysis allow connection multiplexing to be tested to ensure that appropriate mapping of channels occurs
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In-service performance monitoring Following out-of-service protocol testing, the IWU can be inserted in a live network and the tester can move on to monitor the passage of real traffic Monitoring on both sides of the IWU makes it possible to correlate events as they cross between networks and see how successful this is It should also be possible to quantify the effect of the ATM link on the frame relay service, and to characterize the FR-sourced ATM traffic itself Such a test could include correlation of Quality of Service parameters at the ATM layer to the performance of the frame relay service The resulting data should help greatly to optimize the ATM
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ATM Interface Test Port
Figure 118 Frame relay interwork protocol testing
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ATM Testing 256 Wide Area Networks
FR UNI FR-CPE
I W F
I W F
FR UNI FR-CPE
FR UNI Frame Relay network FR UNI
FR-CPE
I W F
ATM network
ATM UNI or B-ICI
ATM network
I W F
Frame Relay network
FR-CPE
Figure 119 Frame relay interwork performance monitoring
network to cope with multiple frame relay connections, and with the many other types of traffic that might be using it simultaneously Figure 119 shows the relationship of the performance monitor to the FR/ATM internetwork
Test case As an example of a typical problem situation encountered by the installers of an ATM link into an existing frame relay network, imagine the following situation:
An ATM link has been installed to connect two existing frame relay network segments Communication is fine within each segment but not possible between them
Possible causes include:
Interworking equipment not functioning properly ATM network not functioning properly
Because the IWU appears to be switched on and working, test equipment is needed to diagnose the fault In-service problem diagnosis: The first step is to monitor the network at various points to determine where traffic is present and where it is not Next, an attempt can be made to confirm that traffic is crossing the IWU and which channels it is using, and whether the protocol mapping is correct If no ATM traffic is being sourced by the IWU, the next step is to check that appropriately routed frames are reaching it Checks can be done on each part of the link to see where errors and alarms that might indicate network malfunctions are present During this test process, it is possible to correlate what is being seen between different segments of the network This procedure would require test equipment with both FR-over-ATM and native frame relay monitoring and decoding capabilities The ability to monitor simultaneously on both the frame relay and ATM links would be useful, although this testing still could be done by monitoring each network separately Out-of-service problem diagnosis: In this example, the in-service diagnosis indicates that both frame relay and ATM segments appear to be working but that the IWU seems to be transmitting incomplete protocol data units (PDUs) into the ATM network This traffic is rejected by the IWU at the far side of the ATM network The
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ATM Testing ATM Testing: Deployment of ATM-Based Services 257
next step, therefore, is to take the IWU out of service and run detailed tests with data patterns generated by the tester What if this step shows data being lost when frames are longer than a certain size In this example it turns out that most of the traffic the network is generating exceeds this size, which explains the incomplete PDUs Re-examining the installation procedures for the IWU reveals the source of the incorrect setting Modifying the configuration and replacing the IWU in the network solves the problem This procedure would require test equipment with not only FR-over-ATM and native frame relay monitoring and decoding capabilities, but also the ability to simulate each protocol through a series of test cases in order to diagnose the fault Ideally, automated test scripts could be used to create repeating stimulus/response tests with PDUs of different lengths to detect this particular fault
Tester requirements A tester suitable for frame relay interworking tests must be concerned primarily with verifying protocol conformance and network performance at the service level It also should be capable of ATM and Physical layer testing (as for cell relay service), to allow correlating cell-level Physical and ATM layer behavior to frame-level behavior of the frame relay interworking service To make these tests possible, the tester must include:
Two full-duplex test ports of the interface rate(s) in the network, providing ATM port protocol support for frame relay over ATM, and native frame relay port test capability Data verification for FR-over-ATM to native frame relay Simulation of frame relay and FR-over-ATM traffic, alarms, and errors ATM and Physical layer test capability, including alarm and error generation and measurement, QoS measurement (both in-service and out-of-service), and ATM layer traffic characterization Correlated analysis of data, both on frame relay and ATM ports, and through all levels of each protocol stack to the user service being carried
SMDS interworking Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) is a public WAN service developed by Bellcore, which (like frame relay) is used primarily for LAN interconnection SMDS was developed as a high-speed alternative to frame relay, particularly for metropolitan area networks (MANs) It has been widely deployed, particularly in several European countries and with some US carriers, but now is losing favor to ATM and particularly frame relay SMDS is a connectionless technology based on the Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) transport and multiplexing of IEEE 8026 In Europe, the European Telecom Standards Institute (ETSI) modified the Bellcore standards to support European interfaces and called it Connectionless Broadband Data Service (CBDS) SMDS standards are available from Bellcore, ETSI (for CBDS), the SMDS Interest Group (SIG), and its European equivalent, ESIG Using a DQDB format gives a 53-byte cell structure that is nearly identical to that of the ATM cell In fact, the PDU structures for connectionless services directly over
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