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Figure 1214 OAM cell formats
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TABLE 124 OAM Cell Format Summary for ATM Alarms
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Flow Type F4 F4 F5 F5
VCI 4 4
OAM Cell Type 0001 0001
Function Type 0000 0001 0000 0001
101 101
0001 0001
Table 124 shows the cell format summary for the alarms Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect Indication (RDI) The AIS alerts downstream nodes of an ATM or Physical layer failure at the upstream node, while the RDI is generated at the termination node of the failed connection and alerts upstream nodes of a failure downstream These alarms are generated at the rate of one cell per second During installation, ATM networks can be tested to determine whether switches respond appropriately to alarms generated by test equipment The AIS and RDI alarms are used on PVCs but not SVCs It is expected that over time additional OAM cell functions will be defined and implemented for ATM networks 1211 ATM Troubleshooting Summary Although ATM networks tend to be reliable, sometimes they can be affected by different types of problems that originate from various sources In fact, sometimes a symptom can be caused by more than one source Establishing hard-and-fast, reliable rules for troubleshooting network problems therefore becomes difficult There are basic tests that can be conducted to help isolate the source of problems, however Some of these tests are described in Table 125 and provide the network operator with possible sources of problems, given particular symptoms experienced by customer applications In order to minimize potential problems once live customer traffic is running over the network, the best policy is for carriers to emulate customer traffic prior to service turn-up This will help carriers anticipate possible problems and make necessary adjustments to improve service
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ATM Layer Testing 290 Wide Area Networks Troubleshooting Common Customer Service Problems Suggested Tests Bandwidth and congestion Possible Causes of Symptoms Traffic exceeds allocated bandwidth on a regular basis or bursty overloads IP Packet loss causing retransmission of data Excess traffic, ATM switch buffer overflow, noisy circuit (ATM switch or transmission equipment) CPE equipment, ATM switch, or transmission equipment failure ATM switch routing tables not configured correctly for customer site, cell misinsertion at ATM switch End-to-end CDVT not acceptable CDVT set too high in switches, provisioned bandwidth inadequate
TABLE 125
Customer Symptoms Slow response time of applications
Constant retransmission of data necessary Loss of service Unidentified traffic arriving at customer site CBR or circuit emulation applications don t work properly (AAL 1)
Bandwidth and congestion, BERT
Loopback tests to customer premises, Physical Layer Testing ATM cell traffic scan, VPI/VCI verification, and Cell Misinsertion Rate End-to-end CDV, CLR
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Source: Communications Network Test and Measurement Handbook
An Introduction to Synchronous Signals and Networks
Doug Moore Hewlett-Packard Ltd, South Queensferry, Scotland
General This chapter provides basic information on the synchronous signal structure, and to help the reader become familiar with the new telecommunications terminology that has emerged with arrival of synchronous systems First, however, it is necessary to give some details about the older plesiochronous networks, and to describe the evolution of the new synchronous networks that replaced them More detailed material on synchronous network standards can be obtained from the documents listed in section 13131 near the end of the chapter
The Plesiochronous Network Before the late 1980s, most high-capacity transmission networks were based on a hierarchy of digital multiplexed signals Lower-rate tributary signals, such as the ITU-T 2048 Mbps (E1) or North American 1544 Mbps (DS1) were multiplexed in fixed asynchronous steps into a higher-rate signal for transmission Access to the individual tributary signals at each level in the hierarchy, for signal routing and test purposes, was provided by signal crossconnect points at the appropriate level in the multiplexing structure Notice that because of the asynchronous nature of the multiplexing, gaining access to a lower-level tributary signal for rerouting or test purposes meant demultiplexing the whole line signal structure step-bystep down to the lower-level tributary data rate At each multiplexing step, the bit rate of the individual tributary signals was controlled within specified limits, but was not synchronized with the multiplex equipment Because the tributary bit rates were controlled, this type of multiplexing is often referred to as being plesiochronous, that is to say, nearly synchronous This
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