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1362 SDH STM-1 frame structure
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The base-level SDH signal is called the Synchronous Transport Module level 1 (STM-1) The two-dimensional map for the STM-1 signal frame (Figure 136) comprises 9 rows by 270 columns, giving a total signal capacity of 2430 bytes (19,440 bits) per frame The frame rate is 8000 frames per second,3 making the duration of each frame 125 s With these frame dimensions and repetitions, the bit rate of the basic SDH signal structure is 15552 Mbps Transport Overhead occupies the first nine columns of the STM-1 frame, a total of 216 bytes The remaining 263 columns of the STM-1 frame, a total of 2403 bytes, are allocated to the Virtual Container signal4 This provides a channel capacity of 15034 Mbps in the STM-1 signal structure for carrying tributary payloads intact across the synchronous network
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Figure 136 STM-1 Virtual Container (VC-4) frame structure
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260 COLUMNS
3 At 8000 frames/second, each byte within the SDH signal structure represents a channel bandwidth of 64 kbps (ie, 8 bits/byte 8000 bytes/second = 64 kbit/s) This is the same bit rate as a PCM voice channel 4 The VC capacity of 15034 Mbps ensures that the basic SDH signal frame may be used to transport the E4-level tributary signal (at 139264 Mbps) of the existing PDH networks The virtual container associated with an STM-1 frame is referred to as a Virtual Container level 4, or VC-4 Virtual container levels 1, 2, and 3 are obtained by subdividing the VC-4 More details are provided in the relevant standards documents
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An Introduction to Synchronous Signals and Networks An Introduction to Synchronous Signals and Networks 299
Synchronous Byte-Interleaved Multiplexing To achieve data rates higher than the basic rates, groups of synchronous transport frames may be packaged for transportation as a higher-order synchronous transport signal Higher-order grouping is achieved by the process of byte-interleaved multiplexing, whereby input transport signals are mixed together on a fixed byte-by-byte basis The input signals are required to have the same frame structure and bit rate; they also must be frame-synchronized with one another For example, four parallel and frame-synchronized STM-1 signals may be byte-interleaved to form an STM-4 signal at 62208 Mbps, four times the STM-1 bit rate (This process is illustrated in Figure 137) Similarly, three parallel and frame- synchronized STS-1 SONET signals may be byte-interleaved to form an STS-3 SONET signal at 15552 Mbps (three times the STS-1 bit rate) Not all possible STS/STM-n signals are used, however; the most commonly accepted line rates are shown in Table 131
STM-1 SIGNAL "A" STM-1 SIGNAL "B" STM-1 SIGNAL "C" STM-1 SIGNAL "D"
BYTE INTERLEAVED MULTIPLEXER
STM-4 [4 * STM-1]
denotes 8-bit byte at STM-1 signal rate
denotes 8-bit byte at STM-4 signal rate
Figure 137 Synchronous byte-interleave multiplexing (STM-1 to STM-4)
TABLE 131 Byte Interleaving
STM-1 to STM-4 SONET STS-1 STS-3 STS-12 STS-48 STS-192 Line Rate Mbps 5184 15552 62208 2,48832 9,95328 SDH STM-0 STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64
Commonly used synchronous line rates
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An Introduction to Synchronous Signals and Networks 300 Wide Area Networks
A Useful Analogy The overhead-with-payload concept of the synchronous network can be thought of in terms of a more familiar road/rail containerized transport system (Figure 138) The container is analogous to the synchronous payload (SPE or VC), which stays intact along with its shipping information (the Path Overhead) from source to destination The additional overhead added to the payload can be considered to be the truck, which ferries the container from node to node within the synchronous network The truck might change at each node, but the container will stay intact Figure 139 shows an analogous network built up using these trucks and containers The signal arrives at the network boundary at node 1, and is assembled into a container with the shipping information attached (in this case, destination node A) The container progresses through the network, changing its transportation at each node It moves from truck to truck, and even is assembled (byte-interleaved) with other containers, each with its own destination information, into the multiple-container cargo of a train The container is disassembled only when it reaches its destination at node A and leaves the transport network In the same way, the SPE can be moved throughout the synchronous network, either at the same data rate (a truck) or at a higher data rate (a train) incorporated with other SPEs The Section/RS and Line/MS overheads (explained in the next section) then can be viewed as the actual mechanisms of the transport system trucks, trains, etc ferrying the container from node to node on its journey through the network The information required for carrying the container through each point is contained in the overhead, which can be changed at each node of the route through the network Though this is a somewhat crude analogy, it helps demonstrate the nature of the synchronous transport mechanism As with all analogies, it has its weaknesses: In this case, it represents the network as unidirectional The synchronous network, however, is intrinsically bidirectional It uses this property to transmit information
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