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Figure 1411 Large FDDI networks often use tree structures to attach multiple end stations through de-
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vices called concentrators Minimizing the number of stations directly attached to the main ring further increases the reliability and fault tolerance of the FDDI network
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adapter faults between the station generating the beacon frame and its upstream neighbor
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Claim frames Claim frames are sent by any station that is inserting into the ring, is removing from the ring, has not received a frame or token within a reasonable time, or has detected a high bit-error rate Claim frames also are sent when a station wishes to send frames more frequently than the already negotiated Token Rotation Time (TRT)
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FDDI soft errors The errors considered soft errors in FDDI include the following:
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Private Network Technologies Private Network Technologies 339
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E-flag set Short preambles Long frames
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TABLE 144 There are no standards for acceptable levels of the performance parameters listed below What is acceptable for one network may not be on another because of the number of attached stations, the amount and type of data traffic, and many other factors However, these guidelines can be applied for many typical FDDI network implementations
Parameter Utilization % Frame Rate Hard Error Rates Claim Frames Beacon Frames Soft Error Rates Long frames, short preambles, E-flag set, violations, bad FCS frames Broadcast, Multicast Frame Rate Protocol Distribution by frames by kbytes
Used to Indicate: Network (transmission media) congestion Device congestion Ring resets; station insertion or removal Ring resets; station insertion or removal Marginal timing, electrical noise (on TP/PMD copper rings)
Guidelines <80% sustained utilization <90% peak (1 second) Device dependent Minimize Minimize
Minimize
Misconfigured routers, nodes or applications Consumption of interconnect device bandwidth by application Consumption of network (transmission media) bandwidth by application Efficiency of networked applications
Network-dependent (generally <20 to 30 per second) Network and application dependent Network and application dependent
Frame Size Distribution
Application dependent (generally, larger frames are more network-efficient than smaller ones) Network dependent Network dependent
Top Talkers by frames by kbytes
Consumption of interconnect device bandwidth by node Consumption of network (transmission media) bandwidth by node Ring resets; transmission errors
Ring State LEM reject count, LEM count, SMT transmit frames, ring op count Token Rotation Time
Minimize
Media access time
Network dependent
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Private Network Technologies 340 Local Area Networks Bad FCS frames These are frames with a Frame Check Sequence that does not match the checksum calculated by the receiver This is usually an indication of a faulty transceiver or cable system component Violations This is an invalid symbol in the MAC sublayer of the Data Link layer There can be multiple causes, typically noise on the line, a faulty transceiver, or an errored MAC implementation E-Flag set The E-flag is a single bit at the end of the frame that is set whenever an error is detected in the frame received from the upstream neighbor, meaning that the frame check sequence is incorrect Short preambles and long frames Short preambles are those that are less than the specified 14 symbols in length Long frames are those that exceed the 4500-byte maximum specification
FDDI ring state A third class of parameters shown in Table 144 have to do with the status of the FDDI ring as a whole These include:
Ring op count SMT transmit frames LEM count LEM reject count Token Rotation Time (TRT)
Ring op count This is the ring operation counter, which registers the number of times the ring has been initialized per second SMT transmit frames This is the number of SMT (station management) frames sent on the network SMT frames are used to implement the station management process within FDDI stations, which is a process of monitoring and reporting the operation of the FDDI protocols LEM count The aggregate Link Error Monitor (LEM) count is a tally of abnormal events observed on the FDDI link LEM reject count The LEM reject count is a tally of the number of times the FDDI link is reset, usually because of a high number of link errors Token Rotation Time (TRT) The Token Rotation Time is the actual time taken for the FDDI token to circulate around the ring It normally is expressed in nanoseconds
Wide Area Network Technologies The three most common WAN technologies are private leased lines, and the X25 and frame relay public packet-switched networks Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, summarized in Table 145, and all are widely deployed
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