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1534 Broadcast traffic
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Several types of operations generate broadcast traffic, which consists of data packets sent to multiple devices simultaneously (Figure 153) These operations include packet routing, address resolution, service advertisements, and booting of diskless workstations across the network, to name a few Broadcast traffic can be a significant load on network performance because it consumes not only transmission bandwidth, but also processing bandwidth within the receiving devices The effect of broadcast traffic can be minimized by network segmentation, without compromising those operations that do require the use of broadcast traffic MAC-level broadcasts are confined to individual segments and do not pass through routers Referring again to the example of Figure 151 and Figure 152, the broadcast traffic in the first case goes to each station on the network In the second (segmented) case, broadcast traffic is restricted to each segment separately, effectively reducing the amount of broadcasts at any point in the network by half
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1535 Bandwidth restrictions in WAN links
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Just as fluid flow is limited by the diameter of a pipe, the flow of data packets is limited by the available transmission bandwidth In a large private network, the most se-
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Figure 153 Broadcast traffic, as opposed to unicast, is sent to all destinations on the network, which consumes computing bandwidth in each device because each must examine and potentially respond to the broadcast message
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Private Networks Performance Testing Private Networks Performance Testing 357
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vere bandwidth restrictions normally are encountered on wide area internetwork links Geographically dispersed LANs running at 10 Mbps or more often are interconnected via wide area links at 64 kbps, 1544 Mbps, or 2048 Mbps Obviously, only a small portion of the total LAN traffic can be carried over the WAN link Wide area network bandwidth very often is an expensive and therefore precious commodity The amount of WAN bandwidth you allocate for each wide area connection should be high enough so that it doesn t significantly restrict data throughput during peak loading, yet no so high that too much of the traffic handling capacity goes unused most of the (non-peak) time Optimally sizing WAN connections in terms of their bandwidth, and managing the use of that bandwidth over time, are two processes that can have a very great impact on the overall performance of a geographically dispersed network
1536 Device configuration
The configurations of end-user nodes and segment interconnect devices also can affect network performance Common examples of configuration parameters that have performance impact include:
Maximum packet size Sliding window size Subnet mask Default gateway
Maximum packet size Configuring the maximum allowable data packet size for each network segment can affect data throughput and application response time Choosing a large maximum data packet size minimizes the amount of protocol overhead (routing and error checking) and minimizes delays associated with packet fragmentation and reassembly But allowing large packets over relatively slow transmission media (such as wide area serial links) increases the probability that transmission errors will result in packet retransmissions, resulting in session timeouts for delay-sensitive data traffic such as LAT or SNA Choosing the optimum maximum data packet size for each wide area network link means balancing between these opposing effects Sliding window size A sliding window protocol allows for transmitting several data packets before an acknowledgment from the receiver is required, rather than waiting for individual acknowledgment of each packet The size of the sliding window is the number of outstanding packets allowed before the transmitting station must wait for a receipt acknowledgment Setting the sliding window size high can improve the performance of transmission links with long delays, such as satellite WAN links, but a large sliding window can have negative performance effects in those cases when high bit error rates necessitate frequent retransmissions Subnet mask An IP subnet mask is used by each station on an Internet Protocol network to separate the network portion of a destination IP address from the node portion of the IP address Misconfigured subnet masks can result in local segment
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