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Because of the point-to-point nature of WANs, connecting a monitoring device usually requires a Y cable and breaking the link Hook up at the CSU/DSU or the router Normally you will need to break the link in order to insert the cable If the link is already down due to a problem, then this is not a problem
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WAN troubleshooting can become complicated for the simple reason that you don t own your WAN the carrier does Finger-pointing often can ensue There are two ways to avoid this First, find an exceptionally good WAN supplier, and second, purchase a WAN analyzer so you can verify suspected problems with the WAN before calling your provider WAN problems fall into two areas The first is the physical transmission If the line quality deteriorates and the bit error rate goes up, severe performance problems can occur In order to check the physical line quality, you will need an analyzer capable of TIMS and BERT testing You also will need to take the line out of service in order to check this! Both of these tests require traffic be generated on the line Your service provider usually has extensive test capability and normally can do this for you These problems can be intermittent (when it rains, for example, and the lines get noisy); you might want the capability to test on short notice These analyzers also can provide a rich set of statistics concerning your WAN performance Other sources of WAN problems include clocking-related issues and jitter These can cause intermittent signal loss, as well as total link failures Timing on DS1 circuits typically is supplied by the carrier Isolating timing problems requires specialized test equipment In-service testing such as timing slip analysis can be performed to verify correct operation of a device These tests often will trace problems back to misconfigured equipment, or device faults Jitter is caused mainly by network equipment such as repeaters and multiplexers If jitter becomes too high, bit errors or frame errors can occur, leading to lowered throughput At the higher layers, it is useful to examine the type of traffic that is going across a WAN If you are using NetWare protocols, for example, you may be sending broadcast traffic (SAPs) advertising services such as file and print servers across the WAN Proper router configuration generally can filter out unwanted traffic A complex source of problems comes from the encapsulation of protocols as a packet moves from the LAN through the WAN For instance, you may be encapsulating AppleTalk in IP in order to route it, and sending that over frame relay This is known as tunneling In order to troubleshoot this, you need a high-quality WAN analyzer capable of decoding LAN-over-WAN You also will need some detailed documentation on your protocols to understand what they should look like when encapsulated The normal procedure when a problem is found here is to consult your router vendor If you have baselines for your network, these will guide you in deciding whether you are experiencing problems with the network There is no substitute for information on the normal statistical operating envelope of your network when faced with an apparent abnormality
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Intermittent problems are the hardest ones to find A common technique to isolate problems like this requires an analyzer that can trigger and perform an action based on a network event The event usually is a network error condition, occurrence of a certain type of frame, or a network statistic (such as broadcasts) reaching a certain level To perform the test, set up a reasonably large circular buffer in the analyzer that continually captures all packets, and wraps around when it becomes full (This is a common capability in analyzers) Next, set up a trigger that is based on an event that defines the problem (such as a high broadcast level) Configure the trigger so that when the event occurs the trigger will stop the packet capture At this point the problem event and all the traffic leading up to it will be in the capture buffer This then can be analyzed using protocol analysis to determine what is causing the problem It is best if the analyzer can capture at full bandwidth, because some intermittent problems (such as broadcast storms) can be caused by only one bad packet! 165 Network Monitoring Sources of network trouble have changed over time In the beginning physical problems were dominant The cabling was unreliable The fault domains were limited only by the repeaters If a cable problem arose from someone kicking a wire under a desk, the entire LAN was affected The first troubleshooting tools were wire testers that checked only for continuity Today s structured wiring environment has limited the cable fault domain to a single node Cable testers still play an important role today, checking critical parameters such as distance and crosstalk, which can adversely effect today s high-speed networks As networks grew more complicated from a protocol perspective, the source of problems migrated from the cables up the stack Physically the networks are composed of cables and interconnects, and many of today s problems originate at the interconnect devices Encapsulation and routing of diverse protocols has created a complex environment that requires a protocol analyzer for serious troubleshooting Specific problems can occur between compatible interconnects Standards implementations can have varying interpretations, and it is not unusual to need a router software patch to fix a problem Network problems can go undetected for some time if not checked for This happens because the networks, at least in the local area, historically have had excess capacity This is changing and adverse performance from a suboptimum network is a problem today The only way to understand the health of the network is to measure it Generally this means collecting more than just throughput statistics from an interconnect
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