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Cellular Measurement Descriptions Cellular Measurement Descriptions 421
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Figure 193a Measuring phase and frequency error One TDMA burst is captured with high-
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speed digital sampling It is demodulated and the ideal phase trajectory computed
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Figure 193b Overlaying actual phase trace with computed phase trace The actual de-
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modulated phase trajectory is compared with the computed ideal phase trajectory for the decoded bit stream The difference between the actual and the computed trajectory represents the phase error across the bit stream
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The sampled phase trajectory is processed to produce a demodulated data pattern The data pattern is used by the digital signal processor to synthesize a perfect phase trajectory Overlaying the sampled trajectory with the perfect trajectory highlights the imperfections in the measured modulation (Figure 193b) Subtracting the two waveforms produces a plot of phase error at each point across the TDMA burst
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Cellular Measurement Descriptions 422 Cellular Networks
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Figure 193c Calculating the peak and RMS phase error and the frequency error The phase error trace has two ingredients: slope and roughness A best-fit straight line is used to calculate the slope The slow change of phase across the burst, shown by the dotted line, is removed from the phase error calculation and expressed separately as frequency error The remaining phase error trace, shown by the jagged line, is summarized by calculating its peak error and RMS error
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While these examples have concentrated on the GSM system, this technique of calculating the phase and frequency error is applicable to most of the digitally encoded modulation schemes that rely on a relative change in phase to convey a bit pattern The entire process of sampling a burst, calculating its phase trajectory, demodulating, producing a perfect trajectory, and calculating frequency error, peak, and RMS phase error, can be carried out using high-speed digital signal processors in a second or less (Figure 193c) 194 Interference Generation Tests Spurious emissions tests are designed to protect other radio spectrum users from unwanted emissions from transmitter or receiver circuitry in mobiles or base stations Specifications vary for mobiles on a call or in idle mode, and for different cellular systems Depending on the design of the mobile, conducted and radiated spurious emissions must be checked Testing spurious output over a variety of extreme power supply and temperature conditions sometimes can be revealing When a mobile s battery voltage droops, the circuitry should switch off cleanly, rather than getting stuck in an unpredictable mode with unwanted RF outputs Spurious emissions tests can be made conveniently using a spectrum analyzer (Figure 194) The resolution bandwidth and sweep frequency range are chosen for the particular cellular system and type of spurious signal that are being checked In
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1941 Spurious emissions
Cellular Measurement Descriptions Cellular Measurement Descriptions 423
some cases, screened RF measurement rooms are needed to keep out other radio energy that could interfere with the measurement
1942 Output Radio Frequency Spectrum (ORFS)
Output RF Spectrum (ORFS) is a test for spurious RF signals generated in channels adjacent to the active transmitting channel This test is appropriate for both GSM mobiles and base stations; variants exist for other TDMA bursted cellular systems There are two distinct measurements, output RF spectrum due to modulation and output RF spectrum due to ramping (or switching) The modulation ORFS test is designed to detect spurious energy generated by the carrier being MSK modulated The ramping/switching ORFS is designed to detect spurious energy generated by the pulsed nature of the RF bursts Output RF spectrum can be one of the most difficult GSM measurements to visualize or understand Matters are further confused by the fact that most pieces of measurement equipment display output RF spectrum traces as amplitude versus time at a particular frequency offset, not (as most would expect) amplitude versus frequency See Figure 195 The measurement is made using a time-gated spectrum analyzer, set to zero frequency span, and tuned to the channel center frequency plus or minus an offset The offset frequencies allow the analyzer to take amplitude-vs-time slices from the measured bursts at the GSM specified frequency offsets A reference measurement begins the sequence by establishing the amplitude at the center frequency (zero offset) The reference measurement is used to convert the results at each offset to relative or dBc values
Figure 194 Spurious emissions These are measured with a spectrum analyzer The test fre-
quency bands will vary depending on the radio system Any unplanned or unwanted RF signals generated by the transceiver device are designated as spurious
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