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Figure 237 Digital regenerator system
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One method of extracting the fundamental frequency is to use an LC tank circuit tuned to resonate at the nominal bit rate of the line system The tank circuit is an electronic flywheel that will reproduce the system clock, provided the number of 0s in the bit stream is limited by some coding method Note from Figure 237 that jitter on the recovered clock affects the data stream in two ways Errors can be made in the decision process due to displacement of the sampling position from the center of the data pulse Second, since the recovered clock is used to retime the regenerated bit stream, any jitter present on the clock will be transmitted down the line
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23101 Pattern-dependent jitter sources
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Both pattern-dependent and random sources of jitter can be identified in regenerators The three most important pattern-dependent sources are:
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Intersymbol interference Finite pulse width effects Amplitude-to-phase conversion impairments
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Intersymbol interference Incorrect equalization of the incoming bit stream could change the shape of the equalized signal in a way that is dependent on the data pattern When this misequalized signal is applied to the nonlinear element of the clock recovery circuit, it causes a phase variation in the extracted timing signal Finite pulse width effects It can be shown that the signal used to drive the tank circuit should pass through 0 V at the same time the tank circuit output does If this does not happen, there will be a phase variation on the output signal that is dependent on the pulse shape and pattern content of the input signal Amplitude-to-phase conversion impairments A limiting amplifier in the threshold detector following the tuned circuit should produce an output that is completely independent of the input signal amplitude In practice, due to aging and temperature effects, the amplifier may exhibit a threshold offset that causes jitter to be introduced onto the timing signal (Figure 238) The output amplitude of the tuned circuit changes with the pulse density of the incoming digital signal
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Timing and Delay Jitter Timing and Delay Jitter 501
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Random jitter sources
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Random jitter sources are those that are not strongly dependent on the pattern content of the incoming bit stream The most important are:
Tuned circuit mistuning Differential pulse delay Crosstalk from adjacent channels in the same line system
Tuned circuit mistuning Mistuning of the LC circuit causes two effects Static phase shift causes a change in transmission delay through the regenerator, which is insignificant if the degree of mistuning is retrieved Dynamic phase shift varies with the pulse density of the bit stream When the pulse sequence is random, the RMS value of jitter introduced is proportional to the product of the square root of the Q factor and a factor dependent on the degree of mistuning In a long string of regenerators, some tuned circuits are likely to be mistuned in opposite directions, so that the effects of mistuning tend to cancel and are not highly cumulative Differential pulse delay The outputs in some regenerator designs process the positive- and negative-going pulses of the bit stream through separate physical paths The output circuitry requires transistors to be driven into saturation; any variations in the junction capacitance of these transistors therefore will cause a phase shift in the position of the output pulse This mechanism generates mainly high-frequency components of jitter, which are removed by the filtering effect of the clock recovery circuit of the next regenerator in the transmission line Crosstalk Signal crosstalk from other digital transmission systems operating on the same cable can cause phase shifts in the regenerator timing signal Crosstalk
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