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are invariably made at a higher multiplex rate The 1988 (Blue Book) version of G821 (Annex D) gives provisional guidelines for conversion: 1 Percent DM converted directly 2 Percent SES converted directly with the addition of percent time with loss of frame alignment Error second estimation is given by Equation 265, where n is the number of errors in the ith second, N is the higher bit rate divided by 64 kbps, and j is the total number of seconds ES64 kbps =
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i=j n 1 ji=1 N
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(265)
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Y percent DM measured at the line rate can be compared directly to Y percent DM at 64 kbps Y percent SES measured at the line rate can be converted directly to Y percent SES at 64 kbps, but if during the test a loss of frame alignment is detected (or a slip), this time as a percentage should be added The conversion for errored seconds is more complicated Since the higher multiplexed bit rate contains many 64 kbps channels, we need to know how many errors are contained in each errored second at the higher rate in order to estimate how many 64 kbps channels have been errored Assuming errors are distributed evenly within the frame (the worst-case condition), then Equation 265 is representative The validity of all these conversion algorithms has been debated in standards committees Bursts of errors in a high-rate transmission stream may cause loss of synchronization in a subsequent demultiplexer, creating an extended error burst on a tributary output Some practical measurements seem to support these conclusions The reader should refer to the latest version of ITU-T Recommendation G821 for guidance on conversion algorithms The more recent G826 recommendation also should be consulted because it covers the performance of higher-speed digital paths
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2634 Related error performance standards
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Several other error performance standards exist, but these generally are related to the ITU-T G821 recommendation
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ITU-R Recommendation 594-1 Error performance of digital microwave radio systems is characterized using ITU-R (formerly CCIR) recommendations, notably Recommendation 594-1, for 2500 km link (64 kbps unidirectional channel) as follows:
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1 BER worse than 1 10 6 for less than 04 percent of any month 2 BER worse than 1 10 3 for less than 0054 percent of any month 3 Errored seconds should not exceed 032 percent of any month 4 Residual BER should not exceed 5 10 9 (15-minute integration)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Bit Error Rate Measurements and Error Performance Analysis Bit Error Rate Measurements 607
Recommendation 594-1 is compatible with the high-grade portion of G821 An additional block allowance of 005 percent SES has been added for adverse propagation conditions and a specification for residual BER has been added Both the residual BER (RBER) threshold and the percentage for G821 parameters should be reduced in proportion for systems less than 2500 km long Since these recommendations are compatible with G821, the same measuring instruments and calculation are used to assess performance The main consideration is that radio propagation is affected by weather, so results could be misleading unless measured over a reasonable period (such as a month)
Recommendation G826 This recommendation (issued at the end of 1993 with subsequent updates) focuses on the error performance parameters and objectives for international constant bit rate (CBR) digital paths at or above the primary rate (ie, 1544/2048 Mbps and above) It is complementary to G821; a higher-speed transmission system meeting G826 should in most cases meet the G821 requirements for the 64 kbps path carried therein G826 applies to PDH and SDH transmission systems and also to ATM transmission paths supported by PDH/SDH framing The overall end-to-end ATM performance objectives are defined in ITU-T Recommendation I356 The measurement definitions in G826 are applicable to both in-service and outof-service testing, and are based on the concept of an errored block of data bits such as a frame The block check for errors could be made by a test set or could be derived from in-service monitoring of CRC or parity errors, described as Error Detection Codes (EDCs) The error events are defined as follows:
Error Block (EB): A block in which one or more bits are in error Errored Seconds (ES): A one-second period with one or more block errors Severely Errored Seconds (SES): A one-second period that contains 30 percent errored blocks or at least one Severely Disturbed Period (SDP)
An SDP occurs when, over a period of time equivalent to four contiguous blocks or one ms, whichever is longer, either all contiguous blocks are affected by a high error density 102, or a Defect Event (DE) such as a loss of signal, loss of frame synchronization, etc, occurs The performance parameters are defined as follows:
Errored Second Ratio (ESR): The ratio of ES to total seconds of available time during a fixed measurement interval Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR): The ratio of SES to total available time Background Block Error Ratio (BBER): The ratio of errored blocks to total blocks during a fixed measurement interval, excluding all blocks during SES and unavailable time
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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