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where L is the loss expressed in dB Pin is the input power expressed in W Pout is the output power expressed in W
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2831 Measuring loss
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Loss easily can be measured at a particular wavelength of interest by using a stabilized optical source and an optical power meter Compact loss test sets include both the source and the power meter in a single instrument (Figure 283) Light-emitting diodes and laser diodes are commonly used as optical sources Laser diodes exhibit a narrower output spectrum and slightly poorer stability than light-emitting diodes, but offer approximately 100 times greater output power, allowing measurement of higher loss and better accuracy for moderate loss Obviously, measuring the loss of an installed fiber requires a power meter that is physically separate from the optical source at the other end of the fiber For more convenient and informative measurement of installed fibers, reflectometers (described in section 286) usually are used
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Test set linearity and stability can result in measurement accuracy of approximately 0005 dB When measuring through fiber connectors, however, the user must keep in mind that the repeatability of the connector loss typically is not better than 010 dB, since a connector is mated to different samples of a compatible connector, and may be considerably worse depending on the connector design and condition
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Figure 283 Measuring the loss of a spool of fiber at a single wave-
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length The output power of the stabilized source is first measured after connecting it to the power meter with a short fiber cable of negligible loss The difference (in dB) between this initial power level and the power measured through the fiber spool is the loss of the long fiber The optical source and power meter may be separate units, or may be integrated into a loss test set
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Spectral Loss The intrinsic attenuation of optical fibers constitutes a large fraction of the total loss of many optical networks Optical power decays exponentially along a fiber, allowing the attenuation caused by the fiber to be specified in units of dB/km The attenuation of many modern fibers is limited by Rayleigh scattering, leading to higher attenuation at shorter wavelengths, as shown in Figure 284 Rayleigh scattering is proportional to 1/ 4, and is caused by transmission through particles much smaller than the optical wavelength, such as the silica molecules in the fiber core Consequently, a more general characterization of loss includes the variation of loss as a function of wavelength, or spectral loss Two approaches to this measurement are practiced, with either a broadband or a tunable source
2841 Spectral loss measurement with broadband source
In the first approach, shown in part (a) of Figure 285, a wide-spectrum optical source, such as a light-emitting diode or an incandescent lamp, is coupled into the device or network under test, and the device output is coupled to an optical spectrum analyzer, which is a scanning monochromator integrated with a low-noise power meter The optical spectrum analyzer then displays the optical power transmitted through the device as a function of wavelength The advantages of the spectrum analyzer approach include wide available spectral range, no coordination of the measurement conditions between the source and receiver ends of a long fiber, and fast measurement speed
2842 Spectral loss measurement with tunable source
In a second approach, part (b) of Figure 285, a tunable laser is coupled through the device into a power meter, which measures the transmitted power as the laser is tuned over the desired measurement range The tunable laser approach accommodates devices with higher loss and can better resolve features occurring at closely spaced wavelengths than can the spectrum analyzer method
Figure 284 Attenuation of a low-loss fiber as a function of optical wave-
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