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A direct-detection OTDR acquires the reflection response of a fiber or network by measuring reflected optical power as a function of time in response to a transmitted optical pulse This is the simplest type of OTDR, as can be seen from the block diagram shown in Figure 289 The 3 dB fiber coupler is a device that splits optical pulses from the laser into the two fibers on the right-hand side of the coupler One of the right-hand fibers is terminated to suppress any reflected signal, while the other is connected to the fiber or network under test Reflections from the fiber or network under test are split between the laser, (where the signal is lost), and the reDownloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Figure 289 Reflectometer block diagram
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Figure 2810 Correlation reflectometer block diagram
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ceiver The received signal is measured as a function of time and displayed as a function of distance using an assumed value for the group velocity of light in a fiber After the first trace is measured, a second pulse is transmitted into the fiber, the reflection is detected and added to the first trace, and the average of the two traces is displayed As the number of traces averaged gradually increases, the displayed noise floor can be observed to fall Since the noise floor falls by 15 dB for every doubling of the number of traces averaged, the rate of improvement of the noise floor diminishes as the averaging process progresses
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The trade-off between total measurement time and noise performance can be greatly improved by use of a correlation OTDR (Figure 2810) Using the terminology of linear, time-invariant systems, the output of an OTDR receiver is the
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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convolution (denoted by *) of the optical pulse shape, the reflective impulse response of the fiber, and the impulse response of the receiver: y(t) = p(t) * f(t) * r(t) where y(t) is the receiver output p(t) is the optical pulse shape f(t) is the impulse response of the fiber on reflection r(t) is the receiver impulse response By properly shaping the optical pulse and then correlating the receiver output with the known optical pulse shape, we can enjoy the noise advantages of a wide, energetic pulse and still obtain the high resolution of a narrow pulse The result of the correlation (denoted by ) is p(t) y(t) = [p(t) p(t)] * f(t) * r(t) where y(t) is the receiver output p(t) is the optical pulse shape f(t) is the impulse response of the fiber on reflection r(t) is the receiver impulse response When the autocorrelation of the optical pulse approximates a delta function, we obtain the same measurement as if we had used a narrow optical pulse (Nazarathy et al, 1989) The best solution applicable within the constraints of reflectometry calls for using a family of four pulse shapes The envelope of each pulse is a binary code designed so that the sum of the autocorrelations of the four pulses is a delta function To obtain a reflectometer trace, reflections are measured in response to each of the four coded pulses Each reflection is correlated with the corresponding code, and the four resulting correlations are added together to obtain the reflected signal versus time or distance The correlation technique allows a given noise level to be achieved with fewer measured pulses, hence more quickly, than without correlation
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