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laser followed by a pulsed intensity modulator, or a bank of pulsed distributed-feedback lasers of graduated wavelength, with outputs combined by a fiber coupler, or a wavelength-tunable mode-locked laser In all cases, optical pulses of width less than approximately 500 ps are necessary A second pulsed optical trigger source, of fixed wavelength, is used to send a trigger signal to the oscilloscope at the receiving end The optical trigger source and the reference fiber are necessary only when the ends of the fiber under test are geographically separate In a loopback measurement, or before the fiber is deployed, the two ends of the fiber under test can be located close together, and the oscilloscope trigger source can be transmitted directly from the pulse generator over a short length of electrical cable As the measurement wavelength is changed, changes in the group delay are directly observed as changes in the delay of the measured pulse After the relative group delay is measured over a set of wavelengths, an analytical function can be fitted to the data and CD can be derived from the derivative of the function, as was shown in Figure 2815 Accuracy often can be improved by including a variable attenuator after the test fiber output At each wavelength the attenuator is adjusted to obtain a constant pulse amplitude at the oscilloscope, avoiding any influence of the pulse amplitude on the measurement of delay
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Modulation phase shift The difficulty of generating very short optical pulses can be avoided by measuring instead the phase shift of sinusoidal intensity modulation carried by light of varying wavelength The relative phase is measured at various wavelengths using equipment such as that shown in the block diagram of Figure 2817 The optical test source is a continuous-wave tunable laser followed by a sinusoidal intensity modulator A second modulated source, of fixed wavelength, establishes a reference phase at the receiving end to allow measurement of the phase variations of the tunable-source modulation Exactly as in the case of the pulse-delay method,
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Figure 2817 Modulation phase shift measurement of chromatic dispersion When the ends of the test fiber are close together, the reference path (fixed source, intensity modulator, reference fiber, and receiver) can be replaced by an electrical cable indicated by the broken line
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Figure 2818 Differential phase shift measurement of chromatic dispersion When the ends of the test fiber are close together, the reference path (fixed source, intensity modulator, reference fiber, and receiver) can be replaced by an electrical cable indicated by the broken line
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the fixed-wavelength source and the reference fiber are necessary only when the ends of the fiber under test are geographically separate In a loopback measurement, or before the fiber is deployed, the two ends of the fiber under test can be located close together, and reference phase can be transmitted directly from the sinusoidal oscillator over a short length of electrical cable As the measurement wavelength is changed, a relative phase shift ( ) is measured by the phase meter as a function of wavelength A relative group delay ( ) is then calculated from the phase shift according to Equation 287 Finally, an analytical function is fitted to the data and CD is derived from the derivative of the function, as was shown in Figure 2815 ( ) = where ( ) is the group delay as a function of wavelength ( ) is the radian phase shift as a function of wavelength f is the amplitude modulation frequency L is length of the fiber under test
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Differential phase shift This method (Figure 2818) is similar to the modulation phase shift method, but includes in addition a direct modulation of the optical wavelength A second name for the differential phase shift method is double demodulation, because two types of modulation are used together: a high-frequency amplitude
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