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SDH and SONET Analyzers SDH and SONET Analyzers 709
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Figure 304 Typical SDH format logging screen
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C2: One byte, part of the path overhead, used to indicate the type of payload being carried
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This information frequently is in the form of coded patterns that translate to an alphanumeric message For example, in SDH the all-zero code represents VC-4 unequipped (ie, not containing any tributary signals); the code 00000001 represents VC-4 equipped A signal decoding feature is available in most analyzers that can decode some or all of these messages and display them, allowing the user to assess the performance of the network element Logging All the features just described are useful in increasing an analyzer s ability to examine passively the synchronous signal For a number of applications, however, long-term testing is necessary, and a function is needed to relate errors/ alarms/signals received against time This feature allows events to be logged versus time so that it is possible to correlate events in the signal with information from the NE s own management system Most sophisticated analyzers provide logging of some description, varying in complexity from a simple printout at each event, through to full storage of all events, and access to the information available over remote RS432 or LAN connections This feature is of greatest importance in the Installation and Maintenance (I&M) phase of deployment, as well as in long-term testing in QA and acceptance testing Figure 304 shows a typical logging screen
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SDH and SONET Analyzers 710 Network Test Instrumentation
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3032 Functional measurements: signal stressing
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Passive examination of the signal is the simplest form of measurement required by a user To further test an NE it is necessary for an analyzer to simulate both normal and defect conditions within the synchronous signal The most common forms of signal stressing are detailed in subsequent paragraphs
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Alarm stressing Most analyzers that can transmit a synchronous bit stream are also capable of stressing the signal to simulate both normal synchronous operations, and defects which can stimulate alarm and near alarm conditions The type of stressing employed depends upon the type of analyzer, but the most common types are detailed below
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Alarm soaking The basic type of alarm stressing is soak stressing, quite simply the ability to turn the alarm condition on and off for a period of time in the data stream This facility is available in most analyzers, and allows an NE s reaction to alarm conditions to be examined The type of soak stressing available varies from analyzer to analyzer In its simplest form it is an on/off button; more complex implementations allow the alarm to be programmed into an On state for a defined number of frames This soaking represents the simplest way to test an NE s reaction to an alarm Alarm sequencing Unlike asynchronous signals, however, synchronous signals are detected on a frame-by-frame basis, so a simple soak -type stress doesn t provide a rigorous test of the NE s alarm detection capabilities To test completely an alarm detection algorithm, a (three-stage) alarm sequencer is required (Figure 305) From an initial alarm On /Off state, the sequencer sends a single stimulus of
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Initialize
Test
Hold
Start
p On
n Off
Available for Alarms Framewords Pointers APS/RPS
m On
Figure 305 P-N-M stressing
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SDH and SONET Analyzers SDH and SONET Analyzers 711
[P] frames of alarm Off/On, followed by a repeating sequence of [M] frames of alarm On/Off and [N] frames of alarm Off/On for as long as desired Most sophisticated analyzers can simulate such a sequence; two methods are employed:
Programmable overhead frames Genuine sequencers
Many analyzers have the ability to program all or part of the transport overhead (including the alarm indication bytes) for a number of frames This allows the P-N-M sequence to be programmed into the overhead This gives only a partial solution to the three-stage sequence, however The N-M holding sequence is limited by the maximum number of frames For most analyzers this maximum is about 64 frames, giving only 8 ms of holding pattern before the P stimulus is repeated This is a better test than a simple soak but is not the most rigorous The most sophisticated analyzers have a three-stage genuine sequencer that can provide exactly the P-N-M sequence Giving a single [P] stimulus followed by an N-M holding pattern of any desired duration This is the most rigorous of tests, fully stressing the alarm algorithm An example follows of how this sequencer could be used A sequencer example Consider the SONET Line AIS defect (similar to SDH MSAIS) The entry condition for Line AIS is five frames of all 1s in the K2 bytes; the exit condition is five frames with the K2 byte clear of the AIS indication This example looks at an AIS exit threshold test, showing both under-threshold (Figure 306) and over-threshold (Figure 307) conditions For the under-threshold sequence: P = 4 frames normal K2 M = 1 frame Line AIS K2 N = 4 frames normal K2 This sequence gives the maximum number of clear frames without exiting the AIS alarm Most analyzers with programmable capability can produce this type of underthreshold test For the over-threshold sequence (Figure 307) the following applies: P = 5 frames normal K2 N = 4 frames Line AIS K2 M = 1 frame normal K2 This sequence gives one burst of five frames (Line AIS exit threshold), followed by a holding pattern that is as close as possible to the entry threshold without exceeding it Under these conditions the NE should go clear of the alarm These over- and under-threshold sequencers represent the most thorough test of the Line AIS alarm exit criteria An NE that passes the above criteria is compliant with the SONET standards It can be seen that this technique can be readily applied to most alarms in the synchronous standards Choice of testing A wide variety of test techniques is offered by the synchronous analyzers; which type of testing to use generally is a function of application In
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