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Figure 332 A simple telephone call requires a sequence of actions to set up the call initially and to release the call when either party hangs up Upon completion of dialing, a message is sent to the SS7 network, which prepares the end-to-end connection and rings the called telephone This is confirmed to the caller with an address complete message, heard by the caller as ringing tone Alternatively, a busy signal may be returned As the called party picks up the phone, an answer message instructs the SS7 system to complete the end-to-end connection At the close of the call, a release message instructs the SS7 system to release the intermediate trunks and switches for other calls
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query over the signaling network to the SCP to determine the actual number to which to route the call The SCP returns the actual number to the switch over the signaling network and the switch sets up the call to that number The network carrying the signaling traffic comprises individual signaling links, each link typically running at 56 or 64 kbps These links pass data to the STPs for routing to destinations based on a message s point code address When more signaling traffic flows between locations, additional links are grouped into linksets to increase the signaling bandwidth A large telephone company s SS7 network might contain up to fifty or more STPs and many thousands of SS7 links What are the signaling messages The signaling network carries several forms of signaling messages that serve different needs Signaling messages are addressed by numeric point code Each network element, such as a switch or service control point, is allocated a worldwide unique point code; in this regard it is similar in concept to a conventional Ethernet address One advantage of this addressing scheme is that messages can be identified by their origins or destinations Among other things, this allows a specific carrier s network traffic to be identified readily from a mixed stream of messages Figure 332 shows a simplified view of the SS7 signaling messages exchanged during the setup and hang-up phases of one telephone call Although the diagram shows
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SS7 Signaling Monitoring Systems 764 Network Management
one order of events (an event is one or more messages on the signaling network), these could occur in various other sequences, such as if a caller were to hang up before the call was answered Note that on any one SS7 link the messages relating to many hundreds or thousands of simultaneous telephone calls are all interleaved An added complication is that messages relating to any one phone call could transit the SS7 network using different links, possibly diversely routed (that is, via different intermediate STPs) 333 Description of an SS7 Signaling Monitoring System An SS7 monitoring system is a distributed monitoring system with potentially hundreds of special-purpose data probes connected to signaling links throughout the SS7 network Data from these probes are gathered, correlated, filtered, and transmitted to a central site, where various applications use the data for network and service management
3331 System overview
Figure 333 shows a basic diagram of an SS7 monitoring system It consists of four layers of processing Layers 1 and 2 typically are located at STP system sites that provide a convenient focal point of signaling link sets Layer 1 consists of card cages containing SS7 interface cards and processor cards The interface cards collect the signaling data from the SS7 network via
Processing Level 4: User workstations
User Workstations LAN Central Site Server Router
Processing Level 3: Central server
Site processor Router LAN Card cage STP Site A SS7 Links
Site Router processor LAN Card cages STP Site B SS7 Links
Processing Level 2: Site processor Processing Level 1: Card cages
Figure 333 An SS7 signaling monitoring system is a distributed computing and measurement system
with four levels Level 1 is distributed throughout the geographical region being monitored and includes card cages filled with measurement probes Level 2 controls the probes and collects and concentrates data from the probes, routing it to the central site server (level 3), where application programs analyze the data for various management, alarm, usage, billing, or other purposes At level 4, workstations for operator interface connect to the central site server via the LAN
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