how to generate qr code using vb.net Introduction to Telecommunications Network Measurements 98 Network Test and Measurement in Software

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Introduction to Telecommunications Network Measurements 98 Network Test and Measurement
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measurements In these cases it is essential to know how the level of jitter varies with jitter frequency This relationship is measured with a jitter test set that demodulates the jitter signal Jitter itself must be checked at the output of the equipment under test The system s tolerance to jitter must be checked at the input by gradually increasing the level of jitter on a test signal until bit errors occur In addition, the tester must check that jitter present at the input is not magnified by the equipment; otherwise, problems can arise when several pieces of equipment are cascaded in a network This measurement is called jitter transfer If equipment conforms fully to all the interface specifications, in principle it should be possible to construct any arbitrary network without generating bit errors Problems still can arise, however, if the live traffic signals have very extreme pattern densities that are not fully simulated by the out-of-service PRBS test
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552 Error performance tests
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Digital network error performance can be measured over a complete end-to-end connection called a path, or over parts of the network called lines and sections These network segments are illustrated in Figure 55 Path measurements indicate the overall quality of service to the customer Line and section measurements are used for troubleshooting, installation and maintenance, and for assuring transmission objectives are met
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Figure 55 A digital transmission system can be viewed as an overall end-to-end path terminated by Path Terminating Equipment (PTE) The system is made up of lines and sections terminated by Line Terminating Equipment (LTE) Sometimes paths are described as low-order paths, implying they are the end-to-end service provided to the customer Highorder paths exist within the network at a multiplexing level and indicate the extent of a path for error performance monitoring, such as a virtual container in an SDH system
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Introduction to Telecommunications Network Measurements Introduction to Telecommunications Network Measurements 99
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The fundamental measure of performance or quality in digital systems is the probability of a transmitted bit being received in error With the latest equipment, the probabilities of this occurrence are very low, on the order of 10 12 or less It is still necessary to measure the performance of these systems, however, and in particular to analyze the available margins of safety, and to explore potential weaknesses that later could lead to degraded performance
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553 In-service and out-of-service measurements
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In-service error performance measurements rely on checking known bit patterns in an otherwise random data stream of live traffic As discussed in 27, some inservice measurements are more representative than others of the actual error performance of the traffic signal Furthermore, some are applicable to the path measurement, provided the parameters are not reset at an intermediate network node Others are only useful at the line or section level The most commonly used error detection codes (EDCs) are frame word errors, parity errors, or cyclic redundancy checksum errors Out-of-service measurements involve removing live traffic from the link and replacing it with a known test signal, usually a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) These tests are disruptive if applied to working networks, but are ideal for installation and commissioning tests because they give precise performance measurement Every bit is checked for error Although the PRBS appears random to the digital system, the error detector (Figure 52) knows exactly what it should receive and so detects every error The error detector calculates the probability of error as the bit error ratio (BER) BER is defined as the number of errors counted in the measurement period, divided by the total number of bits received in the measurement period Thus the bit errors or error events can be detected by out-of-service or in-service techniques These are sometimes referred to as the performance primitives To be useful for assessing quality of service (QoS), however, they must be analyzed statistically as a function of time according to the various error performance standards specified in Table 52 This analysis yields percentages for the availability of a digital communication link, and the portion of time that it exceeds certain performance criteria that are acceptable to the customer One of the most important standards is the ITU-T Recommendation M2100/2110 56 Protocol Analysis in the Telecommunications Network Up to this point we have discussed the capability of the telecom network to transmit digital bits or analog signals over a path without errors or quality degradation Testing BER, for example, assumes that the traffic carried by the network is completely random data, or at least that the payload within a frame structure is random This apparently random traffic signal will, in fact, always have a structure It might be a PCM voice signal, a data signal, a signaling message for controlling network switching, or possibly an ISDN signal or an ATM cell data stream for broadband services When telecom networks were predominantly carrying voice traffic using in-band signaling, there was little interest in checking the information content of the traffic
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