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643 Benefits of TTCN
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TTCN allows an operator or test engineer to know exactly what to expect from test scenarios There are no surprises or ambiguities In certain cases it can help clarify otherwise unclear sections of the specification Learning a single notation allows test operators and customers to read ATSs for all major protocols around the world Thanks to TTCN-MP s strict syntax and semantics, it greatly automates the translation of ATSs in TTCN into executable code (using C source code, for example) This facility allows the production of ETSs that reflect precisely the desired ATS (resulting in a better product sooner), and the embedding of diagnostic trace statements to help pinpoint problems in an IUT quickly and accurately
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Figure 614i Labels and GOTO statements
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Figure 614j Assignments and boolean expressions
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Conformance and Interoperability Testing 130 Network Test and Measurement
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Figure 615a Section identifying the test case
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Figure 615b Test case traces printout
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Source: Communications Network Test and Measurement Handbook
Part
Wide Area Networks
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Wide Area Networks
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Source: Communications Network Test and Measurement Handbook
PDH Networks
Principles of Digital Transmission
Doug Conner Hewlett-Packard Ltd, Westfield, Massachusetts Hugh Walker Hewlett-Packard Ltd, South Queensferry, Scotland
Introduction to Plesiochronous Digital Networks The term Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy or PDH refers to a multiplexing system that is not fully synchronous Plesiochronous, according to the ITU-T recommendations, means nominally at the same bit rate but not synchronized to a common master clock The variation from nominal bit rate allowed in a plesiochronous telecom system is typically between 15 and 50 parts per million (ppm) offset from the specified clock frequency PDH multiplexing and transmission systems comprised the first generation of digital telecommunications network technology, developed in the 1960s and 1970s PDH has now been superseded by the synchronous SDH and SONET hierarchy developed in the late 1980s A great deal of PDH equipment exists in the world s telecommunications networks, however, and the new synchronous system is also designed to interwork with it Testing PDH networks thus will continue to be an important issue for many years to come The digital telecommunications network had its origins with the development of pulse code modulation (PCM), invented by Reeves in 1937 and patented in 1939 As described in 3, PCM involves sampling, quantizing, and coding the analog telephone voice signal to produce a compressed binary digital signal When Reeves invented PCM, the traffic on the telecommunications network was almost entirely voice telephony, apart from a very small amount of Telex and telegraph The practical application of PCM had to wait, however, until the development of solid-state technology in the 1950s and 1960s In 1962, the Bell System in the US installed the first point-to-point multiplexed digital transmission system, shown schematically in Figure 71 The main purpose of this
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PDH Networks 134 Wide Area Networks
Figure 71 An early point-to-point PCM system operating at primary rate over twisted pairs previously used for voice band telephony The digital regenerators are required every 2 km (125 mi) These early systems were deployed mainly to increase the traffic capacity of existing trunks between exchanges by taking advantage of the higher noise immunity of digital systems
early PCM system was to increase the capacity of trunks between main exchanges or Central Offices It operated at the T1 rate of 1544 Mbps, carrying 24 telephone channels over a 4-wire circuit that previously handled just one analog voice channel Digital regenerators were necessary every 2 km (approximately 125 mi) to overcome the losses in the twisted-pair cable Conveniently enough, this was the approximate spacing of the loading coils previously used to condition the lines for voice-frequency traffic Early PCM systems in Europe also operated with 24 multiplexed channels, but the standard soon became the 30-channel system at the 2048 Mbps E1 primary rate The next step was to take several of these primary-rate T1 or E1 multiplexed signals and combine them into a single, high-capacity transmission path, which in the 1970s would be either microwave radio or (more likely) coaxial cable In 1972, the ITU s International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT, now the ITU-T) issued the first version of the Recommendation G703, Physical/Electrical Characteristics of Hierarchical Digital Interfaces This document defines the interconnection requirements for PDH equipment The equivalent North American standard is ANSI T1102, Digital Hierarchy Electrical Interfaces Two main PDH standards are in use; one is based on the 1544 Mbps primary rate for North America, and the other based on the 2048 Mbps primary rate found in most other countries of the world In addition, Japan has a different hierarchy for the higher levels, also based on 1544 Mbps, as shown in Table 71 (taken from ITU-T Recommendation G702 and G703 and ANSI T1102) The fundamental idea about plesiochronous multiplexing is that each multiplexer and demultiplexer is a standalone island within the network It has its own internal clock source, which needs to have moderate stability to meet the limits specified in Table 71, but there is no need to synchronize these internal clock sources to a master clock Most networks are synchronous at the primary T1/E1 rate, however, because the 24/30-channel assembly is a fully synchronous structure to allow the digital circuit switches to operate directly on the timeslots, as described in 3 The
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