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PDH Networks PDH Networks: Principles of Digital Transmission 165
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probe at an unprotected 75 T-junction, as shown in Figure 732 The resistive probe results in a loss of 20 to 30 dB, so additional receiver gain is necessary in the test set In North America, nonintrusive tests usually are made at a protected crossconnect point, which additionally requires equalization of the f-law cable losses This section will consider what in-service measurements are possible on traditional PDH systems designed according to the European standards and North American standards Some basic in-service errors, such as line code errors, are useful for checking the performance of a particular transmission link, while others may provide a quality measure over a complete end-to-end transmission path The major benefit of in-service tests is that they allow the user s traffic to flow normally without interruption This means that error performance statistics can be collected over a longer period, and with the storage available on modern test sets, weeks of data can be stored and timestamped for multiple in-service parameters These might include CRC-4 block errors, FAS errors, HDB3 code errors, and alarm history Long-term monitoring is useful for catching that elusive burst of errors that only seems to occur at the busiest time of the day! It also helps to confirm that the overall quality of the circuit meets
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Figure 732 In-service tests require nonintrusive bridging of the active transmission path Usually this is available at a protected point Alternatively, a high-impedance bridging probe can be used, resulting in a signal loss of 20 to 30 dB made up for by amplification in the test set Useful in-service tests can be made only by a test receiver capable of recognizing the hierarchical frame signals and checking for errored bits in the frame word More sophisticated test sets can demultiplex low-level tributaries, or even 64 kbps channels, from a 140 Mbps high-capacity link
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specification For more information on technical aspects of in-service measurement parameters and performance analysis, please refer to 26, Section 2633
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752 European in-service testing In-service testing at the 2 Mbps (E1) rate The importance of in-service tests at the 2
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Mbps (E1) level was discussed earlier, and especially the value of CRC block error detection (and E-bits) for estimating errored seconds The E1 level is the basic building block of the switched telecom network, and also is the most commonly used rate for digital leased lines in private enterprise networks The CRC-4 error-detection process checks all the payload bits, whether they are PCM voice channels, compressed voice encoding, video, or data The Far End Block Error (E-bit) allows complete analysis of both transmission directions from a single, nonintrusive monitoring point (Figure 733) As discussed earlier, this in-service error detection process does not indicate bit error ratio (BER) unless one assumes a certain error distribution (random or burst) to predict the average errors per block Rather, it provides a block error measurement This is very useful for estimating percentage errored seconds (%ES), which usually is considered the best indication of quality for data transmission itself a block transmission process CRC-4 error-checking is very reliable; at least 94 percent of errored blocks are detected even under high BER conditions, according to ITU-T Recommendation G706 The E1 test set must be able to decode a CRC-4 frame and analyze and store the measurement results These are divided into Anomaly Events (AE) such as frame or
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Figure 733 The CRC-4 frame structure at 2 Mbps (E1) provides complete inservice error checking of the traffic payload Errors and alarms detected at the far end receiving terminal are relayed back to the transmitting end using the E and A bits A test set monitoring in-service on either the transmit or receive paths thus will have the complete picture of both directions of transmission
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