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Path layer An end-to-end digital service such as DS1 or DS3 is defined as a path and may traverse many different digital sections at different multiplex bit rates and using different technologies (such as lightwave or microwave) Path-layer monitoring therefore gives an indication of the overall DS1 or DS3 service performance being provided to customers
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Figure 736 With a demultiplexing test set, the complete alarm picture can be scanned and displayed for
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all hierarchy levels by monitoring the 140 Mbps signal On this test set, an alarm would show as reverse video on a particular number
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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PDH Networks 170 Wide Area Networks
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Figure 737 A summary of the signal structures for the four hierarchy levels of the international PDH standard
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Figure 738 Layered maintenance model used in North America, showing the Path layer and Line or Section layer The Path layer provides an indication of error performance for the end-to-end service provided to the customer at either DS1 or DS3, while the Section layer indicates the performance of the previous maintenance section only, and thus is useful for troubleshooting and fault location
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Line or section layer Monitoring at the line or section layer provides maintenance information on a facility in the network and is helpful in sectionalizing problems Degradation detected at this level might contribute only part of the result for overall Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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PDH Networks PDH Networks: Principles of Digital Transmission 171
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path layer performance, however; within the transmission network there are typically many lines and regenerator sections between line terminating equipment (LTE) At the line layer, for example, there might be a 135 Mbps microwave radio link carrying three DS3 streams with several hops (or regenerative repeater sections) en route Performance primitives are basic error events or other performance-related occurrences detected by monitoring the frame format code or the line code of a digital signal These performance primitives are grouped into categories of anomalies and defects Anomalies generally are degradations in performance, whereas a defect is a limited interruption in the ability of a system to perform a required function Examples of defect primitives are loss of signal (LOS), out-of-frame (OOF), severely errored frame (SEF), and alarm indication signal (AIS) Examples of performance primitives are:
Line code violations Bipolar violations (BPV) in B3ZS, B8ZS, or AMI Frame errors Parity errors C-bit parity (DS3) Extended Superframe (ESF) Cyclic Redundancy Checksum (CRC-6) (DS1)
Some performance primitives, such as BPV and parity errors, are corrected by regenerators or line terminal equipment before the signal is passed on to the next section Errors detected by these primitives can have occurred only in the previous line section and not elsewhere in the network They are useful for sectionalizing problems but cannot be used for assessing overall service performance To measure overall path layer performance, it is necessary to use an error-detection process that will pass through the various network hierarchy and technology sections transparently Two such primitives have been devised: ESF CRC-6 and C-bit parity
CRC-6 For DS1 services, the preferred frame format is Extended Superframe (ESF), consisting of 24 standard DS1 frames (a total of 24 193 = 4632 bits) A Cyclic Redundancy Checksum (CRC) is computed over each superframe and the 6-bit CRC word inserted in the next superframe The CRC-6 calculation is made only in the path terminating equipment (PTE) and is not recalculated at the line or section level; errors will accumulate along the path in exactly the same way as bit errors in the payload or customer data Recalculating CRC-6 at the receiving PTE and comparing it with the value sent from the transmitter will detect an error occurrence in the path C-Bit parity For end-to-end DS3 performance, a new path layer measurement called C-bit parity has been introduced Traditionally, DS3 in-service error performance has relied on conventional DS3 parity bits (P-bits) and bipolar code violations Typically these are recalculated or corrected at each item of terminal equipment and do not allow a cumulative system measurement to be made over the whole path On the other hand, C-bit parity provides such a measurement and, as described later, has a number of other very useful features for network monitoring Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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