Introduction to Integrated Services Digital Network in Software

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Introduction to Integrated Services Digital Network
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For a user working from home or at an office, ISDN provides the means of access to the IDN Figure 91 shows the variety of locations from which users might need to access remote databases, connect to the local area network (LAN) at the office, or use any of the services available to users over the IDN ISDN satisfies some important user demands placed upon these services:
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Greater bandwidth for higher-speed applications Greater reliability, better performance, and greater security Simple connection and interaction with the network Cost savings
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Greater bandwidth The connection from the user to the network often is referred to as the local subscriber loop By far the most of the installed local loop access is via common twisted-wire pairs, designed for standard telephone circuits, sometimes referred to as Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) This is the traditional, voice191
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Integrated Services Digital Network 192 Wide Area Networks
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ISDN Central Office CO Intelligent Digital Network ISDN CO
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ACME Internet provider entertainment databases
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IS DN
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Figure 91 ISDN provides the local access into the IDN, making available a variety of communication and
computing services to different user profiles
grade analog telephony service supporting one voice conversation over one pair of twisted wires extending from the user location to the telephone company or service provider Central Office (CO) For a private residence, there might be from one to three pairs of wires installed Commercial premises that have a Private Branch Exchange (PBX) or LAN could have many pairs of twisted wires The move from older analog POTS local access to ISDN allows subscribers to achieve much greater rates of data transfer (greater bandwidth) using newer digital techniques, rather than older analog modem techniques ISDN is a digital line There is no dial tone and no ringing voltage Each existing pair of wires is capable of being converted to support a Basic Rate ISDN (BRI) or a Primary Rate ISDN (PRI) access A BRI can provide two separate 64 kbps data streams that can be used separately, such as with simultaneous digital voice and digital data, or combined together to form a 128 kbps data stream Commercial users often can justify the costs of stepping up to a PRI access that can provide 23 separate 64 kbps data streams, or a single aggregate 1536 Mbps data stream
Greater reliability Modern networks provided by the telephone companies and other service providers have evolved at tremendous rates There has been a remarkably rapid shift from older, analog-based networks to entirely digital networks, providing both digital local access and digital transport Greater reliability is possible as a result of networks becoming all-digital Digital systems are also much less susceptible to noise and other imperfections that introduce errors, thus providing better performance Modern digital signal processing techniques also allow for greater levels of security Simple connection When a user has a telephone, fax machine, and computer to connect to a network, there could be three separate interfaces involved If internaDownloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Integrated Services Digital Network Integrated Services Digital Network 193
tional travel is required, the user might find that each country has a different requirement Through international standards, ISDN has an overall objective to provide a small, standard set of user and network interfaces that allow users standard access to a variety of network services ISDN can integrate virtually all forms of communication, including voice, data, and video
Cost savings Any change to a new technology such as ISDN, or adoption of a new technique requires significant cost justification By converting and using the very large existing installed plant of twisted-pair local loops, the service provider and ultimately the end user can achieve significant levels of cost savings A single pair of wires capable of a single voice or data conversation can be converted to a BRI or PRI ISDN line, capable of carrying more than one conversation The cost-of-service for a BRI line capable of two voice or data conversations typically is tariffed comparably to that of two separate analog voice-grade lines Although ISDN technology has been available since the mid-1980s, only in the last couple of years has there been market demand and notable growth in ISDN A number of factors have fueled this growth End users continue to ask for and expect to receive ever-growing performance and features from their network and communication systems With ISDN, end users now have the ability to set up applications that combine both voice and data over a single network ISDN can be used to tie remote terminals or personal computers into other computers, LANs, or private wide area networks (WANs) Important services and applications include:
Voice telephony Voice communication is supported simultaneously with data services, allowing a user to talk and access data at the same time Facsimile Older data transmission methods are not very fast ISDN supports services for the transmission and reception of graphics, images, etc, at data rates as high as 64 kbps Images Medical images, interactive video, and in-home movies are examples of images that can be digitally transferred over the ISDN by using 64 kbps data streams or aggregate multiples of 64 kbps data streams to achieve higher-bandwidth performance LAN connectivity A PC using ISDN can log in remotely to a local area network In this way, the user has all the same features as if connected directly to the LAN, such as file transfer, database access, and electronic mail This application is a great benefit to telecommuters, a growing segment of the working population Internet access The Internet is the prime example of an interlinked web of networks, penetrating over 100 countries with 11,000 separate networks feeding into it, containing up to 17 million host computers Home-based access and rising Internet use are creating demand for faster access to the multimedia presentation of the World Wide Web (WWW) Surfing the Web becomes agonizingly tedious if not accomplished at the higher data rates made possible by ISDN Videoconferencing Combining simultaneous voice, data, and video capabilities enables practical videoconferencing to take place Videoconferencing or desktop
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