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921 ISDN Physical layer
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The purpose of the Physical layer of the OSI stack is to provide the electrical and functional procedures needed to transmit the data onto the physical media Two CCITT specifications exist for layer 1 of ISDN:
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I430 for the BRI I431 for PRI
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US ISDN specifications are similar to these Since the B and D channels are timemultiplexed onto the same transmission line, the specifications for the B and D channel are the same These standards define and provide for the following capabilities:
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Transmission capability, timing, and synchronization functions The necessary procedures to allow Network Service Provider or Customer Premise Equipment to be activated or deactivated Signaling capability and the necessary procedures to allow terminals to gain access to the common D channel in an orderly way The necessary procedures to perform maintenance functions An indication of the layer 1 status to higher layers Point-to-point capability, as well as point-to-multipoint arbitration capability Determination of the bit formats in layer 1 Voltage levels on the physical media
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BRI INFO signal/states In the process of establishing, maintaining, and disconnecting a BRI at the S or T reference points, there is a handshaking or communication between the Terminal Equipment (TE) and the Network Termination (NT) There are four specific signals that occur on the S and T reference points during interactions between the TE and NT These signals are called INFO (information) signals and are defined in the specifications The INFO signals depend on the state of the link and may occur in any order Either the TE or NT may initiate a connection The TE and NT move progressively from INFO 0 to INFO 3, and from INFO 0 to INFO 4, respectively INFO 3 and INFO 4 are the states that signify that the Physical layer link is established and synchronized with the flow of proper frames Figure 97 illustrates this interaction Monitoring and observation of the INFO states provides important and useful diagnostic information when troubleshooting a BRI connection The BRI U interface also has similar handshaking processes and signals that provide information regarding the status of the layer 1 connection The full-duplex BRI data stream between a TE and the NT (S reference point) is 192 kbps and consists of two B and one D channel It also has additional overhead (control) bits that allow the BRI to support both point-to-point (single endpoints) or point-to-multipoint Point-to-multipoint (or passive bus) allows for up to eight independent ISDN stations, each capable of two B channels
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Integrated Services Digital Network 204 Wide Area Networks Purpose: to establish, maintain or terminate an ISDN layer 1 link
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Level 1 establishment TE INFO 0 INFO 1 INFO 3 Layer 1 established Data Transfer NT INFO 0 INFO 2 INFO 4 Layer 1 established Data Transfer
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Figure 97 Establishment of the physical link for BRI involves handshaking between the Terminal Equip-
ment (TE) and the Network Termination (NT) Either side may initiate the connection; then communication progresses through the indicated INFO states until the layer 1 link is established, signaling that data transfer can begin
922 ISDN Data Link layer
Layer 2, the Data Link or Frame layer interface, is responsible for the reliable transfer of information across the physical links The Data Link layer:
Ensures error-free data transmission between layer 3 entities across the user-tonetwork interface by providing error detection and correction Receives services from layer 1 and provides services to layer 3 Provides the form of the bit stream (frame format) and provides flow control
The protocol running over the D channel at the Data Link layer is defined as CCITTI441 (Q921) and is commonly known as Link Access Procedure for the D channel (LAPD) The United States ISDN specifications are similar The B channel protocols for the Data Link layer can vary from High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) to voice The B channel protocols are not defined by the ISDN standards and can consist of whatever the user wants to transmit, as long as the protocols conform to the layer 1 standards LAPD provides layer 2 addressing, flow control, and error detection for the D channel The error detection of layer 2 is responsible for finding transmission errors that might have occurred In the areas of flow control and error detection, LAPD is very similar to Link Access Procedure-Balanced (LAPB), which is layer 2 for X25 LAPD differs, however, in the addressing capability that it provides LAPD allows for multiple logical connections at the Data Link layer This is needed because the D channel controls all of the B channels that can operate independently and requires different logical connection on the interface The LAPD layer 2 uses a frame structure with fields that include:
Flags These are used for frame synchronization; the pattern equals 01111110 (7E hexadecimal)
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