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Figure 101 ATM compared to TDM In traditional Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) networks, each service is segmented into single octets, which are allocated to a timeslot within every frame of the digital stream This is ideal only for low-bandwidth, constant bit rate services In an ATM network, each service is segmented into 48 octet packet payloads, which are multiplexed into the digital stream only as required This is much more efficient for services with variable bit rates and is scalable from very low to very high bandwidths
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Broadband Communications and Asynchronous Transfer Mode Broadband Communications and Asynchronous Transfer Mode 219
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Public ATM
Video
Video Conference
SMDS
Cable TV
Figure 102 The ATM network ATM can be deployed effectively in the core of public carrier networks, carrier access networks, residential access networks, enterprise backbones, and all the way to the desktop ATM also is capable of transporting and interworking with existing LAN and WAN technologies such as Ethernet, frame relay, and SMDS ATM has been designed to be an integrated network technology that can meet the diverse quality needs of data, voice, video, and multimedia services
Library access to video and audio material Database access Interactive multimedia
In addition to supporting all of these and other broadband services, ATM also can also handle efficiently services with bandwidths below 2 Mbps 102 The ATM Communications Network The broadband environment requires interconnecting existing private and public networks with the new networks that will provide the services of the future (Figure 102) As a communications infrastructure, ATM is ideally suited to be used both as a backbone network (interconnecting LANs, MANs, and WANs), as a means for highbandwidth user connections such as multimedia applications or even ATM LANs themselves
1021 ATM protocol map
Figure 103, the ATM communications map, shows the interrelationship of ATM with the various network services The map is split into three major hierarchical levels: Physical, ATM, and Services The Services level includes the key technologies planned or being carried over ATM networks, primarily data, voice, and video services In the center of the map are the key technologies of ATM: the ATM Cell layer, which provides transport of service data; the AALs (ATM Adaptation layers), which
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Broadband Communications and Asynchronous Transfer Mode 220 Wide Area Networks
Cell Transport Services
Cell Relay
Voice & Video Services
Voice CBR Video MPEG2 SMDS ICIP
Data Services
CLNAP Frame Relay Network Service MPOA LAN over ATM Classical IP LANE
CL Interworking
FR Interworking
LAN Interworking
UNI PNNI B-ICI (B-ISUP)
UNI SSCF NNI SSCF SSCOP
Signaling
CS SAR CPCS SAR CPCS SAR
AAL 1
Traffic Management Policing CBR VBR UBR ABR
AAL 3/4
QoS CLR CTD CDV CER CMR SE/CBR
AAL 5
OAM Fault Mgmt Performance Mgmt
ATM Layer
Other cell-based Interfaces for ATM
256M 100M TAXI TP Clear Cells Ch'l in (Pure) Frames
PDH Interfaces for ATM
SDH/SONET Interfaces for ATM 34M E3
24G 622M 52M 155M STM-0 STM-1 STM-4c STM-16c STS-1 STS-3c STS-12c STS-48c
Frame-based Interfaces for ATM
DXI HSSI FUNI DS-1/E-1
15M 45M 63M DS-1 DS-3 J2
2M E1
Plesiochronous PHY
Synchronous PHY
Cell-based PHY
Frame-based PHY
Figure 103 The ATM protocol map ATM is a flexible technology that can carry a wide range of both new and existing service types over a wide range of new and existing physical interface rates and types The protocol map shows the ATM layer to be the common denominator in this diverse network environment
adapt service data into and out of ATM cells; and the network control procedures, which allow operation and management of the network At the bottom of the map are the key physical network technologies specified for carrying ATM cells, split into public telecom technologies and private enterprise technologies Also included are framebased interfaces that allow the transport of ATM data without segmenting it into cells
Physical level The Physical level of the map shows the most common standard physical interfaces on which ATM can be used These include not only cell-based specifications to carry standard 53-byte ATM cells, but also frame-based interfaces that allow the variable-length AAL frame structures to be transmitted directly without segmentation into cells ATM standards are defined for the most popular public network interfaces throughout the world, including both the latest optical SONET/SDH interfaces and the older electrical PDH interfaces used in each world region Currently these interface specifications range from DS1 at 15 Mbps to OC-48c/STM-16c at 2488 Gbps, but it is feasible for ATM to be carried at both lower and higher rates as well In addition to public network technologies, a series of lower-cost interfaces have been specified for the private enterprise With the flexible nature of ATM, almost any interface rate and media can be used Standardized interfaces include lower-cost variants of SONET at 51 and 155 Mbps over multimode fiber and UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) copper Also standardized are interfaces based on LAN technologies, such as a 100 Mbps (TAXI) based on FDDI, and a 256 Mbps UTP based on Token-
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Broadband Communications and Asynchronous Transfer Mode Broadband Communications and Asynchronous Transfer Mode 221
Ring Many other interface types, such as Cells in Frames and Clear Channel, are also being proposed in an effort to find the most appropriate method of access for particular services Other initiatives, such as wireless ATM, will result in the appearance of further ATM interfaces Finally, there also are frame-based interfaces specified to transport ATM structures, such as HSSI (High-Speed Serial Interface) and FUNI (Frame User Network Interface) Instead of transporting cells, these interfaces transport the variablelength AAL Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS) structures used with data services, which avoids the processing overhead of segmenting and reassembling the frames into ATM cells
ATM level The ATM level of the map contains the core ATM protocols: the ATM layer, ATM Adaptation layer (AAL), and connection control through signaling The ATM layer is responsible for managing the transport of ATM cell streams through the network of ATM switches The 53-byte cells contain a 5-byte header for identification, routing, and control information, and a 48-byte payload to carry the service data Services are allocated bandwidth on demand by using only the number of cells they require, as opposed to reserving a fixed bandwidth as with a TDM network Specific protocols at this layer are discussed in more detail in subsequent sections The ATM Adaptation layer (AAL) is responsible for the segmentation and reassembly (SAR) of service data to fit the fixed-length cell payloads Different AALs are defined to meet the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the different service types that can be carried on ATM Each AAL is optimized for a particular type of service As new services are developed, a need might develop for new AALs The specific AAL protocols are described later Before any ATM cells can be sent through the network, an ATM connection must be set up to allocate a virtual channel (VC) and virtual path (VP) for the cell stream The VP and VC are hierarchical, with each VP containing a large number of VCs This gives the network flexibility to group channels together in the same path and allows switching to be done at either level ATM signaling and connections are described in subsequent sections Services level The services level of the map shows the main services being specified to use an ATM network These range from the basic cell relay services to methods for carrying voice and video over ATM and methods of using ATM in data networks With data services, ATM can be used for LAN connections to the desktop, as a LAN backbone and in the WAN The protocols also allow ATM to interwork with other LAN and WAN protocols in a mixed network environment 1022 The B-ISDN protocol architecture
The B-ISDN protocol reference model is defined in ITU-T Recommendation I121 It calls for a three-dimensional, layered architecture of both planes and layers (Figure 104) The higher, or service, layers are applications such as frame relay, SMDS, LAN, TCP/IP, SNA, video, or voice
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