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An IS organization supporting many applications and services will generally have some controls that are specific to each individual application However, IS will also have a set of controls that apply across all applications and services These are usually called its general computing controls, or GCCs An organization s GCCs are general in nature and are often implemented in different ways on different information systems, based upon their individual capabilities and limitations Examples of GCCs include: Applications require unique user IDs and strong passwords Passwords are encrypted while stored and transmitted, and are not displayed Highly sensitive information, such as bank account numbers, is encrypted when stored and transmitted All administrative actions are logged, and logs are protected from tampering Readers who are familiar with information systems technology will quickly realize that these GCCs will be implemented differently across different types of information systems Specific capabilities and limitations, for example, will result in somewhat different capabilities for password complexity and data encryption Unless an organization is using really old information systems, the four GCCs shown here can probably be implemented everywhere in the IS environment How they are implemented is the subject of the next section
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The GCCs discussed in the previous section are implemented across a variety of information technologies Each general computing control is mapped to a specific IS control on each system type, where it is implemented In other words, IS controls describe the implementation details for GCCs For example, a GCC for password management can be implemented through several IS controls one for each type of technology platform in use in the organization: one for Windows servers, one for Linux servers, and one for each application that performs its own access management Those specific IS controls would describe implementation details that reflect the capabilities and limitations of each respective platform
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An audit is a systematic and repeatable process whereby a competent and independent professional evaluates one or more controls, interviews personnel, obtains and analyzes evidence, and develops a written opinion on the effectiveness of the controls An IS audit, then, is an audit of information systems and the processes that support them An IS auditor interviews personnel, gathers and analyzes evidence, and delivers a written opinion on the effectiveness of controls implemented in information systems An auditor cannot just begin an audit Formal planning is required that includes: Purpose The IS auditor and the auditee must establish a reason why an audit is to be performed The purpose for a particular audit could be to determine the level of compliance to a particular law, regulation, standard, or contract Another reason could be to determine whether specific control deficiencies identified in past audits have been remediated Still another reason is to determine the level of compliance to a new law or standard that the organization may be subject to in the future Scope The auditor and the auditee must also establish the scope of the audit Often, the audit s purpose will make the scope evident, but not always Scope may be multidimensional: It could be a given period, meaning records spanning a start date and end date may comprise the body of evidence, geography (systems in a particular region or locale), technology (systems using a specific operating system, database, application, or other aspect), business process (systems that support specific processes such as accounting, order entry, or customer support), or segment of the organization Risk analysis To know which areas require the greatest amount of attention, the IS auditor needs to be familiar with the levels of risk associated with the domain being audited Two different perspectives of risk may be needed: First, the IS auditor needs to know the relative levels of risk among the different aspects of the domain being audited so that audit resources can be allocated accordingly For example, if the audit is on an ERP system and the auditor knows that the accounts receivable function has been problematic in the past, the IS auditor will probably want to devote more resources and time on the accounts receivable function than on others Second, the IS auditor needs to know about the absolute level of risk across the entire domain being audited For example, if this is an audit to determine compliance to new legislation, the overall risk could be very high if the consequences of noncompliance are high Both aspects of risk enable the IS auditor to plan accordingly Audit procedures The purpose and scope of the audit may help to define the procedures that will be required to perform the audit For a compliance audit, for example, there may be specific rules on sample sizes and sampling techniques, or it may require the auditors with specific qualifications to perform the audit A compliance audit may also specify criteria for determining if a particular finding constitutes a deficiency or not There may also be rules for materiality
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