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Setup of SCCP VoIP Connections
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To help illustrate how SCCP connections are established between a Cisco IP Phone client and the Cisco CallManager server (VoIP gateway), as well as how connections between IP Phone clients are established, I ll use the example shown in Figure 13-2 When an IP Phone first boots up, it will use DHCP to learn its IP addressing information, which includes its IP address and subnet mask, a default gateway, a DNS server address, and a TFTP server address With version 62, the appliances support DHCP options 150 and 166, which allow them to send the TFTP server address to DHCP clients, including Cisco IP Phones I will discuss DHCP server features of the appliances in 26 The IP Phone client will use TFTP to download its configuration instructions from the TFTP server, which usually resides on the CallManager server This will include its phone number Normally CallManager will use the MAC address of the phone to determine the configuration file to associate with the phone
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SCCP UDP Port => 1024 TCP Port => 1024 UDP Port => 1024 IP Phone Client UDP Port => 1024 UDP Port = 69 TCP Port = 2000 Cisco CallManager
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UDP Port => 1024
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UDP Port => 1024
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Figure 13-2 Setup of an SCCP session
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NOTE If the phone is connected to a lower-level interface than CallManager, you ll need an ACL entry to allow the TFTP connection (and enable protocol inspection or TFTP) Also, if a DHCP server doesn t reside in the VLAN the phone resides in, and the appliance is not a DHCP server, you ll need to configure a DHCP relay function on the appliance to forward the DHCP request to a DHCP server on a different segment (discussed in 26) When setting up the first connection (which uses TCP) to the CallManager server, the client device will choose a port number greater than 1023 that is not currently being used The destination port number is the well-known port 2000 This connection is a signaling connection and is used by the client to send signaling information, like a call setup or teardown request of phone connections Across this signaling connection, the client will indicate which UDP port it will use to handle the processing of voice packets (phone connections) Once the signaling connection is established and the IP Phone registers its phone number and IP address, the phone can make phone calls When making a phone call, the client will use the signaling connection to signal the CallManager server of the call setup request to a destination phone Like SIP, RTP is used to establish the phone session to a remote phone: one UDP connection is for the audio, and the second one for synchronization of the audio (RTP is discussed in the next chapter) The source phone will select two unused UDP port numbers (greater than 1023) for these two connections The CallManager will then contact the destination party, acquire the destination UDP port numbers for the connections (greater than 1023) from the destination, along with the destination IP address, and then notify the source phone of the connection information so that the source can now complete the phone connection to the destination
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Voice and Policies
Application Layer Inspection Features for SCCP
Application inspection for SCCP is new as of version 60 of the OS Basically the appliance securely allows the additional UDP connections by adding them to the state table and fixing embedded addressing information in the payload Currently there are five versions of SCCP: 24, 304, 311, 32, and 332 the appliances support application inspection of all versions through 332 Dealing with the Additional UDP Connections for SCCP If the VoIP client establishing the voice session is connected to a lower-level interface compared with the VoIP gateway, you ll need an ACL to allow the signaling connection In addition to this, if the destination VoIP client is connected to a higher-level interface compared with the source, you ll need application layer inspection enabled for SCCP in order for the appliance to examine the signaling connection, determine that the two RTP connections are being negotiated, dynamically add these to the state table, and, if address translation is used and the new connections create a conflict with an existing PAT translation(s), to change the embedded port numbers in the signaling connection and create the necessary PAT translation(s) in the xlate table If the IP addresses are being NATed, these are also fixed in the signaling connection The following restrictions apply to the appliance performing application inspection of SCCP traffic: Inside NAT and PAT are supported, but outside NAT and PAT are not: therefore, if you have overlapping addresses between two networks, the IP Phones in the two networks will not be able to communicate with each other Stateful failover (discussed in 23) is supported; however, phone calls in the middle of being established are not replicated, and the user will have to redial the number after a failover has occurred
Additional Application Layer Inspection Features for SCCP Starting in version 7, additional application inspection features were added for inspection of SCCP connections Besides fixing embedded addressing information in the signaling connection and adding the RTP connections to the state table, the appliances can perform the following application layer inspection functions, as well as many others: Filter message identifiers Limit the length of message identifiers Require registration with CallManager before phone calls can be made Look for protocol violations in the setup of phone connections Limit the size of the SCCP prefix in the header
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