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Once you ve created your tunnel group, to associate VPN-specific attributes to it, use the following command:
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ciscoasa(config)# tunnel-group tunnel_group_ID {ipsec-attributes | webvpn-attributes} ciscoasa(config-tunnel-{ipsec|webvpn})#
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You have two options for the type of attributes, depending on the type of tunnel group: IPSec attributes or WebVPN attributes You ll be taken into a subcommand mode where you can specify the VPN-specific attributes I ll be discussing these attributes in subsequent chapters of Part IV
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Certificates are the most scalable solution to perform device authentication with VPNs Certificates must be created by a neutral third-party, called a certificate authority (CA) The appliances support many CAs, including RSA, VeriSign, Netscape, Baltimore, Microsoft, Entrust, Cisco IOS routers, and the security appliances themselves (not discussed in this book) The remainder of this chapter will introduce the use of certificates, how to obtain certificates for appliances, and how to use certificates to authenticate devices for IPSec sessions
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Introducing Certificates
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There are two types of certificates: root and identity Every device participating in the certificate process must have a certificate, including the CA itself The certificate for the CA is called a root certificate, and certificates for other devices are called identity certificates Obtaining an identity certificate can be done either out-of-band using the file-based approach or in-band using the Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP), which uses HTTP To use certificates, the peers must have an ISAKMP Phase 1 policy that supports certificates (RSA signatures) During authentication, two items are checked, and a third is optional For the two required items, the peers validate the digital signature on the certificate and then make sure the certificate hasn t expired With the third item, an option exists for checking if a peer certificate has been revoked: the use of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) or Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) is supported A CRL contains a list of all the certificates that have been revoked CRLs can be downloaded when they are needed, which can be bandwidth-intensive and introduce delay in the VPN setup process, or they can be downloaded periodically and cached, which can create problems of not having the most up-to-date list when authenticating a peer OCSP, on the other hand, has the device perform a query, with the remote peer serial number on the identity certificate, to the OCSP server in order to determine if the certificate has been revoked Using OCSP is the preferred method
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Obtaining Certificates
The following sections will discuss how to obtain the root certificate of the CA and how to generate the certificate information, defined by the Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) #10 standard, which the CA needs to create an identity certificate for the appliance
Identity Information on the Certificate
When generating your PKCS #10 certificate information, by default the appliance associates a common name (CN) of the appliance hostname and domain name configured on the appliance You can override this behavior and assign your own key label when generating the key pair, as you ll see in the Basic Trustpoint Configuration section To assign a name and domain name to your appliance, use the following configuration:
ciscoasa(config)# hostname name_of_your_appliance ciscoasa(config)# domain-name your_appliance s_domain_name
These commands were discussed in 3
Key Pairs
Cisco supports both the RSA and DSA algorithms for generating public/private keys; these are used to sign the PKCS #10 information DSA is quicker in generating its keys, but is less secure; and not all CA products support DSA Because of these limitations, this book only focuses on the use of RSA keys
Cisco ASA Configuration
Generating RSA keys was discussed in 3; however, then I didn t discuss all the options available with the command Here s the full syntax of the command:
ciscoasa(config)# crypto key generate rsa [usage-keys | general-keys] [label key_pair_label] [modulus key_size] [noconfirm]
The usage-keys parameter generates two sets of keys, while the general-keys parameter generates one key pair; the default is general-keys if you omit it, which is what you need for certificate purposes Use usage-keys if you need two identity certificates from the same CA, which is uncommon If you don t specify a label for the key pair, it defaults to Default-RSA-Key If you don t specify a modulus (the size of the keys, in bits), it defaults to 1024: other valid sizes include 512, 768, and 2048 The noconfirm parameter, when configured, will execute the command without any interaction on your part the default is to prompt you for verification Use the show crypto key mypub key command to view the public keys on your appliance TIP You might want more than one RSA key pair SSH uses the default key pair label; but you might want to use a different key pair (with a different modulus) for certificates Here s an example of generating an RSA key pair:
ciscoasa(config)# crypto key generate rsa label mykeys INFO: The name for the keys will be: mykeys Keypair generation process ciscoasa(config)#
In this example, a key pair label of mykeys is used to name the key pair NOTE If the RSA key pair already exists, you are prompted to overwrite the existing key pair Also, to delete an RSA key pair, use the crypto key zeroize rsa [label key_pair_label]
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