free barcode generator for excel 2013 Routed vs Transparent Mode in Software

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Routed vs Transparent Mode
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Starting in version 7 of the OS, the appliances support two modes of operation: routed and transparent In routed mode, the appliance acts as a layer 3 device and forwards packets based on destination IP addresses In transparent mode, the appliance acts as a layer 2 device, like a bridge or switch, and forwards Ethernet frames based on destination MAC addresses Figure 21-1 compares the two modes Let s examine the routed mode example shown on the left side first The two interfaces, whether they re physical or logical (trunked with VLANs), must be in separate VLANs (broadcast domains) Since routed mode is used and the appliance must see these as two distinct networks, two subnets are used for the layer 3 addressing The appliance then forwards frames based on the IP addresses it sees inside the IP packet headers The right side of Figure 21-1 shows an example of transparent mode Notice that the two interfaces involved in the layer 2 process are in separate VLANs (broadcast domains), but they are in the same layer 3 subnet (10010) When in transparent mode, the appliance
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Transparent Firewall
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Figure 21-1 Routed and transparent mode comparison
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behaves more like a layer 2 switch or bridge, where it switches frames between interfaces based on the MAC addresses in the Ethernet frame headers As you will see later in the chapter, the appliances still have the capability of filtering traffic based on information in the layer 3 and layer 4 headers as well as the application layer (layer 7) payload One interesting point about the transparent mode process on the right side of Figure 21-1 is that the process is kind of strange when you examine it from a layer 2 device perspective In a layer 2 network of switches, devices in the same subnet are in the same broadcast domain, and thus are in the same VLAN So why would Cisco require you to put devices in the same subnet into different VLANs or broadcast domains Let s examine Figure 21-2 to understand why Cisco makes this requirement Cisco assumes that all the devices that need to communicate with each other are connected to the same switch If you were to put all the devices in the same VLAN on the switch, then the appliance couldn t control traffic between the devices, like the users and the default gateway, since the switch would allow devices in the same VLAN to communicate with each other By placing the devices in separate VLANs, like 10 and 20 in the example shown in Figure 21-2, you are forcing the traffic to go through the appliance, where you can apply policies to the traffic NOTE If the two interfaces of the appliance are connected to two different switches and the switches are not directly connected together, then you can use the same VLAN number for the interfaces of the appliance between the two switches
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Bridges vs Transparent Mode
One thing to keep in mind about transparent mode is that even though an appliance is operating at layer 2, it does not behave exactly the same way as layer 2 switches or bridges Yes, they are both operating at layer 2, but there are quite a few differences between how a switch and an appliance will handle traffic
Cisco ASA Configuration
Appliance Management IP 1001253
VLAN 10
VLAN 20
Users
Default Gateway 1001254
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Figure 21-2 Transparent mode, broadcast domains, and VLANs
Let s examine some of the things that switches and appliances have in common as well as some of their differences Switches perform three primary functions: Learn what MAC addresses are associated with which interfaces, and store them in a local MAC address table (sometimes called a CAM table) Intelligently forward traffic using the MAC address table, but flood unknown destination unicast addresses, multicast addresses, and broadcast addresses Use the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) to break up layer 2 loops to ensure that only one active path exists between a source and destination
Like switches, appliances when configured for transparent mode will perform the first bullet point: when a frame comes into an interface, the appliance compares the source MAC address in the frame and adds it to the MAC address table if it isn t already there The appliance will also use the MAC address table to intelligently forward frames based on the destination MAC addresses in the frame headers; however, the appliance will not flood destination unicast addresses that are not found in the MAC address table The appliance will flood broadcasts and multicasts The appliance assumes that if the devices are using TCP/IP, they ll go through the ARP process to discover destination MAC addresses that are associated with layer 3 IP addresses; through this discovery process the appliance will learn the respective source MAC addresses and the interfaces they are associated with Therefore, if a device breaks away from this expectation and
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