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Here s an example that sets up two Privilege EXEC passwords for level 9 and 11:
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ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# enable password secret9 level 9 enable password secret11 level 11 privilege show level 9 command access-list privilege configure level 11 command access-list privilege level 11 command static aaa authentication enable console LOCAL aaa authorization command LOCAL
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In this example, you must be at level 9 or higher to view ACLs; however, you must be at level 11 or higher to configure an ACL or to create static translations
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The problem of using enable passwords to control what commands an administrator can execute is that if multiple administrators need the same level of access, they must use the same password, which creates accountability problems A better solution is to use usernames and passwords One option is to use a local database of accounts, where each account is assigned a level of access that restricts what it can do I ve already discussed the commands necessary to accomplish this, so let s look at an example that illustrates authentication and authorization using a local database:
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ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# ciscoasa(config)# username admin1 password secret1 privilege 9 username admin2 password secret2 privilege 11 username admin3 password secret3 privilege 15 privilege show level 9 command access-list privilege configure level 11 command access-list privilege level 11 command static aaa authentication ssh console LOCAL aaa authentication console console LOCAL aaa authentication enable console LOCAL aaa authentication http console LOCAL aaa authorization command LOCAL
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This example uses three administrator accounts at privilege levels 9, 11, and 15 I ve used the same privilege levels discussed in the last example One difference between this and the last example is the aaa authentication commands: these are used to prompt a user for a username and password, based on the method of access the user might use to gain access to the appliance
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The main problem with local command authorization is scalability: if you have one appliance, you only have to create your user accounts and privilege commands once However, if you have 30 appliances, replicating this information and keeping it in synch would be difficult Given this scenario, I recommend that you centralize the administrator accounts
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26:
Basic Management from the CLI
and the commands they can execute on an AAA server The one restriction, however, is that if you want to control what commands an administrator can execute, you must use the TACACS+ protocol, which reduces to less than a handful the number of products you can purchase I ve already discussed AAA and its configuration in 7 Here s an example that employs command authorization, where both the administrative accounts and command privileges are defined on an AAA server:
ciscoasa(config)# username backdoor password doorback privilege 15 ciscoasa(config)# aaa-server AAATAC protocol tacacs+ ciscoasa(config)# aaa-server AAATAC (inside) host 100111 key cisco123 ciscoasa(config)# aaa authentication serial console AAATAC LOCAL ciscoasa(config)# aaa authentication enable console AAATAC LOCAL ciscoasa(config)# aaa authentication ssh console AAATAC ciscoasa(config)# aaa authentication http console AAATAC ciscoasa(config)# aaa authorization command AAATAC LOCAL
One item to point out about the preceding configuration is that I created a backup level 15 account in case the AAA server is unreachable
Management Accounting
If you want to have a record of who logged into the appliance and what commands they executed, you ll need to configure AAA accounting One restriction with accounting is that you must record the accounting records on an AAA server (syslog and SNMP are unsupported); and for commands that are executed, you must be using TACACS+ as the AAA communications protocol Here are the commands to enable AAA accounting for administrative access to the appliances:
ciscoasa(config)# aaa accounting {serial | telnet | ssh | enable} console AAA_server_tag ciscoasa(config)# aaa accounting command [privilege level] AAA_server_tag
The first command creates an accounting record when someone logs into or out of the appliance based on the access method defined The second command creates an accounting record for each command executed at the specified level If you have created multiple privilege levels and want to have account records created for commands executed at each level, you ll need a separate aaa accounting command for each privilege level
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