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This will significantly decrease the number of components, and thus the cost, of high-volume items such as mobile phones, direct-conversion (zero IF) data radio receivers, cheap Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, wireless local-area networks (LANs), pagers, and other (high-volume) systems-on-a-chip Many major companies, such as Harris Semiconductor, Hughes Networking, National Semiconductor, Northern Telecom, and Tektronix, find this technology important enough that they have obtained expensive foundry licenses for the IBM SiGe BiCMOS technology The first products are just becoming available, and are small-density components meant to supersede GaAs products Inevitably, higher-integration devices will be introduced that will lower cost and increase performance in many high-volume wireless systems, with cellular phones being the primary market 13 Microstrip
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At microwave frequencies, microstrip (Fig 132) is employed as transmission lines, as equivalent passive components, and as tuned circuits and high-Q microwave filters on printed circuit boards Microstrip is used for these functions for its low loss and ease of implementation, since high-frequency components, such as surface mount capacitors, resistors, and transistors, can be mounted directly onto the PCB s microstrip metallization layer The metallization layer can be formed of copper or gold Microstrip itself is unbalanced transmission line and, because of its unshielded nature, can radiate RF However, radiation from properly terminated microstrip is quite small Stripline (Fig 133) is similar to microstrip, but is placed between the metallization layers of a PCB and, because of the balanced twin ground planes, does not radiate Both microstrip and stripline normally have a printed circuit board substrate constructed of fiberglass, polystyrene, or Teflon Since microstrip can utilize standard PCB manufacturing techniques, it is easier and cheaper to fabricate than stripline The characteristic impedance of microstrip is governed by the width of the conductor, the thickness of the dielectric, and the dielectric constant; low-
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Figure 132 Microstrip, showing the dielectric and conductive layers
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Figure 133 Stripline, showing the dielectric and conductive layers
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impedance microstrip lines are wide, and high-impedance microstrip lines are narrow But the most important attribute of microstrip is that its impedance does not change with frequency or with line length The characteristic impedances of microstrip and stripline are designed to be anywhere between 10 to 100 ohms, with 50 ohms being the norm for transmission line use Microstrip is very common in frequencies of operation at 150 MHz and above
132 Microstrip as transmission line
Fifty-ohm microstrip is utilized in microwave circuits to prevent reflections and mismatch losses between physically separated components, with a calculated nominal width that will prevent the line from being either inductive or capacitive at any point along its length In fact, with a source s output impedance matched to the microstrip, and the microstrip matched to the input impedance of the load, no standing or reflected waves will result; thus there will be no power dissipated as heat, except in the actual resistance of the copper as I2R losses In microstrip the dielectric constant (Er) of the dielectric material will not be exactly what the microstrip transmission line itself sees This is due to the flux leakage into the air above the board, combined with the flux penetrating into the dielectric material This means that the actual effective dielectric constant (Eeff), which is the true dielectric constant that the microstrip will now see, will be some value between that of the surrounding air and the true dielectric constant of the PCB Because of the small RF field leakage that emanates from all microstrip, these types of transmission lines should be isolated by at least two or more line widths to decrease any mutual coupling effects when run side by side on a PCB To lower the chances of cross talk even further, a ground trace may be necessary between the two microstrip transmission lines Microstrip should also always be run as short and straight as possible, with any angle using a mitered or slow round bend (Fig 134) to decrease any impedance bumps and the ensuing radiation output [electromagnetic interference (EMI)] caused by a sharp or unmitered bend Another issue to watch for in designing microwave circuits with microstrip transmission lines is the waveguide effect: Any metal enclosure used to shield the microstrip or its source or load circuit can act as a waveguide, and drastically alter circuit behavior This effect can be eliminated by changing the width of the shield to cover a smaller area or by inserting special microwave foam attenuator material within the top of the enclosure
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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