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Figure 81 A low-frequency Class C frequency multiplier
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multiplied, while the output tank is tuned to an exact integer multiple of this frequency Thus, the output tank of the active multiplier will not only send the selected harmonic on to the following stage, but will also attenuate the fundamental and the subharmonics created by the multiplication process The push-push doubler of Fig 82 is another class of active frequency multiplier, and employs two active devices and two transformers Since one JFET is receiving a 180 degree out-of-phase signal, while the other JFET is receiving an in-phase signal and their outputs are tied together in parallel twice as many output pulses will occur These pulses are sent into the output tank circuit, which is tuned to the desired harmonic (2 fr) Active frequency doubling of the original input signal has thus taken place Passive methods of multiplying frequencies are prevalent as well The tripler varactor frequency multiplier of Fig 83 is one such circuit: As the frequency to be multiplied is coupled into the input tank through the transformer, which is tuned to this 1 fr frequency, the varactor will be continuously switched on and off This action severely distorts the 1 fr frequency, creating harmonics of n fr In this case we have a tripler, so the undesired second harmonic is shunted to ground through the series bandtrap filter, while the desired third harmonic is sent on to the 3 fr tuned tank circuit, and is output through the transformer s secondary R functions as a bias resistor for more efficient multiplication, obtaining its DC bias voltage from the rectification that occurs through the diode There are two different types of diode multipliers that can be constructed: reactive and resistive Reactive multipliers consist of either a varactor diode or
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Figure 82 A JFET push-push frequency doubler circuit with biasing
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Figure 83 A varactor frequency multiplier circuit
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a step recovery diode (SRD), and are narrowband by nature Both the input and output impedance matching circuits will be effective only over a very narrow band of frequencies because of the inherently reactive nature of these diodes Also, while SRDs are capable of high values of frequency multiplication, and can reach up to 20 GHz in frequency, they are also quite expensive Varactor diodes are cheaper, but have much lower levels of frequency multiplication, yet have a higher maximum operational frequency than the SRD GaAs varactor types are available that can be operated into the very high microwave region, while hyperabrupt snap-off varactor diodes have higher conversion efficiencies than the common abrupt varactors; in fact, the conversion efficiency of any varactor multiplier is approximately 1/N, with N being the harmonic number Resistive frequency multiplication is created by the nonlinear resistance inherent in any Schottky diode Since a pure resistance is not affected by
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frequency (as reactive components are), resistive multipliers will not be influenced by any variation in the input or output matching circuit with frequency changes, thus allowing the resistive multiplier to function over a very wide band of frequencies with high stability Unfortunately, low efficiency prevents a Schottky diode multiplier from producing a high order of harmonics; doublers and triplers are the most common, with the maximum output power possible from this type of multiplier calculated by POUT PIN/N2, with N equaling the harmonic and PIN equaling the input power (in watts) to the multiplier However, these multipliers can be used at very high frequencies of up to 100 GHz And while an ideal Schottky diode would produce only odd harmonics, a real-life Schottky will generate both odd and even harmonics because of its small internal offset voltage If drive levels of over 10 dBm are expected into a Schottky diode shunt multiplier, such as the one in Fig 84, then an adjustable DC bias circuit should be utilized for maximum multiplier efficiency (either a DC power supply or a simple resistor bias section can be added as shown) SRD circuits can be replaced by transistor multipliers for frequencies between 500 MHz and 4 GHz (transistors are superior to SRDs below 2 GHz because of their lower cost, ease of tuning, better power output, and simpler design) Gunn and Impatt diodes can be used between 4 GHz and 16 GHz (Gunn multipliers are superior to an SRD in certain low-power applications because of their lower noise, lower cost, and ease of design implementation Impatt diode multipliers are cheaper and easier to design than the SRD when multiplier frequencies must reach 8 GHz and over, but SRD multipliers will have a wider bandwidth and a lower noise generation) GaAs varactors can be utilized at up to 100 GHz (varactor diodes are lower in cost than SRDs and can reach higher frequencies, but cannot produce as many harmonic orders) PIN switching diodes can also be adopted in multiplier cir-
Figure 84 A harmonic generator for frequency multiplication showing two different diode bias methods, Rb and Vcc
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