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also by natural sources, such as the static created by atmospheric lightning External noise also includes space noise, produced by solar flares and sunspots, and cosmic noise, induced by the stars radiating interfering signals in all directions Circuit-generated noise power, in watts, can be calculated by the formula shown below This simple formula states that the two contributors to noise in a circuit are the temperature and the bandwidth of the circuit; the lower the temperature and the lower the bandwidth, the lower the noise contribution The actual carrier frequency of the signal itself has absolutely no effect on the production of this noise: PN where P N K T B noise power, W Boltzmann s constant, 138 circuit temperature, K circuit bandwidth, Hz KTB 10
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A related noise contributor is from an outside origin, such as a signal source, and is created by the same mechanism as above It is referred to as source noise, and can be calculated by: NF where NF PNO PNI 290 K 10 log10 P NO PNI at 290 K
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noise figure, dB output noise power, W input noise power, W the reference temperature used in most measurements, in kelvins
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102 Electromagnetic Interference
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Attenuating electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) to the lowest levels possible is a major requirement of most wireless designs Undesired electromagnetic radiation escaping from a radio s enclosure will not only interfere with neighboring wireless equipment, but small RF levels flowing within the radio cabinet itself can destroy the proper operation of an otherwise solid design
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1022 Designing for EMI suppression Analog EMI suppression Suppression of EMI is necessary for all designs both wireless and nonwireless because of rigid European and strict FCC regulations, as well as for protection of your design against improper operation
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Wireless Issues
Wireless Issues
Metallic shielding of synthesizers and oscillators to prevent coupling energy into other circuits, or to prevent other circuits from injecting energy into the frequency sources, is vital Any such EMI propagating out of a frequency source can decrease the isolation between stages and/or cause harmonic or mixing products to form in the rest of the radio s stages, while EMI entering a synthesizer or VCO can create undesirable spurs Traces leaving a frequency source should be shielded by placing them at a lower PCB layer (in stripline form), which is especially important from high-power frequency sources, such as those used to feed diode mixer conversion stages However, when shielding of the top layer is employed to prevent microstrip traces from radiating, the characteristic impedance of the microstrip can be greatly affected by the top and side shield enclosure if it is placed too close to the track Temperature-reducing perforated shielding should be utilized with caution and never when a design is to operate above 2 GHz as harmonics of the fundamental signal frequency can easily escape such an enclosure Lack of shielding or proper layout can cause a filter to become virtually useless if the signal to be filtered is able to propagate around the filter itself This can be especially problematic with SAW devices because of their high initial insertion loss, which allows EMI to pass almost unfiltered Traces for transistors, inductors, mixers, and RFIC s, and even the components themselves, can all radiate; so self-shielded parts should be used whenever required Tough EMI radiation problems can be mitigated by applying RF-absorbing foam or rubber over an offending circuit (at 400 MHz and above), or placed within the shield itself to prevent the waveguide effect (The waveguide effect is undesirable low-loss coupling through a long shield structure that creates a waveguide-like transmission line) In most wireless PCB situations it is prudent to ground all external cases, shields, and septums straight to the ground plane in order to reduce EMI emissions Even though placing shielding over a radiating circuit or shielding a circuit that is being adversely affected will help EMI substantially, any such electromagnetic emissions can still travel through the dielectric of the PCB and influence susceptible circuits A method of attenuating this type of EMI is to utilize a fence of through-hole vias, which are located around the affected circuit, from the top of the PCB to the bottom ground plane At very high frequencies, or if high-amplitude harmonics of the fundamental are present, then vias will have to be placed in a relatively dense pattern Preventing EMI from corrupting the DC power supply, and thus the entire wireless device, is critical A generous amount of decoupling capacitors that are capable of shunting the entire spectrum of possible EMI frequencies along with a high-frequency choke should be placed close to all active devices This will prevent unwanted oscillations and/or contamination of our desired signal (see Coupling/Decoupling of Amplifiers ), and is especially important for VCOs and LNAs, which must be heavily decoupled from
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