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Figure 104 Increase in insertion loss of distributed filter as loss tangent is increased
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Figure 105 Variations in the bandwidth of a distributed filter as the board thickness is
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High-frequency analog board design The lengths of all component leads must
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be minimized to decrease losses and abnormal circuit operation caused by the added lead inductance Transmission lines, usually microstrip, must be employed to maintain 50-ohm constant impedances, thus decreasing mismatch losses and reflections caused by impedance discontinuities Some lower-frequency circuits can exploit simple traces of unknown impedances, but these would still have to be kept very short so that transmission line effects did not disturb circuit operation (even a short 1-cm-long wire can have an inductance of approximately 10 nH, or 63 ohms at 1 GHz, forming an almost pure inductor) All bends in microstrip traces should be mitered or rounded to prevent radiation into adjoining circuits Microstrip into or out of an active device that has narrow leads should be tapered for a decreased impedance bump (Fig 106) All ground returns from all discrete active and passive devices, as well as ICs, must be sent to the board s ground plane by the shortest route possible, normally through a via This is to lower the return path s inductance to ground (Fig 107), and is especially important for proper stability and gain of a discrete transistor in its emitter return circuit The entire board layout should also be as physically condensed as possible to minimize losses and radiation (EMI), but not so much as to increase undesired coupling The decoupling components for
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Figure 106 Proper board layout for a transistor as seen from top of PCB
Figure 107 Side view of a through-hole via to ground plane
the power supply (PS) should have a low capacitive reactance to ground and a high inductive reactance at all frequencies for all devices being supplied (Fig 108) This is to block any signals from entering, and contaminating, the power supply The decoupling function is accomplished by capacitors (and/or inductors) that are optimized for different frequencies; such as electrolytics for low frequencies and ceramics or porcelain for the much higher frequencies Since vias, as stated, will have a certain inductance, just as any conductor will, this value can be calculated by: 4h d
508h ln
where L h d
inductance of the via, nH length of the via, inches diameter of the via, inches
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Figure 108 (a) Proper decoupling for a MMIC; (b) proper DC bias RF capacitor
decoupling for a transistor
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Wireless Issues
Wireless Issues
This formula infers that varying the diameter of a via will not do much to change the via s inductance, while altering its length has a profound effect, which is why all vias (and conductors in general) to ground must be kept short, or the inductive reactance can become significant at higher frequencies The printed copper board s traces will have a certain amount of resistance, and this resistance can adversely affect a circuit s operation Since a trace has this resistance, it will mean that any two points along a trace will not have the same voltage, which can cause problems as to what the actual ground reference level is (it should be zero volts) At RF, this resistance is further increased by the skin effect Vias should be placed at regular intervals of a quarter-wavelength or less through the top ground plane down to the true bottom ground plane in any RF circuit, as the only real ground plane of a two-sided board (one substrate, one upper and one lower copper sheet) is considered to be the continuous bottom copper layer All components at RF frequencies will have some reactive and resistive parasitic effects, so only resistors, inductors, and capacitors that are rated at the frequency of operation or above should be used in an RF circuit Depending on the application (coupling, decoupling, filtering, matching, etc), running into a component s series or parallel resonance unexpectedly can destroy proper functioning of the wireless circuit Mutual inductance (coupling) of traces, components, and wires must be accounted for in any design This undesired coupling of energy can be alleviated by: 1 Keeping traces that are carrying RF currents separated by distance 2 Employing shields 3 Reducing the area of the current-carrying loops 4 Using right angles between traces A concept similar to tapering the microstrip into an active component to lessen the impedance bump is shown in Fig 109 To decrease impedance variations and lower VSWR when a RF signal encounters a passive component, such as a coupling capacitor, the component should ideally be of the same width as the microstrip and the solder fillet itself should be smooth so as not to disturb the signal flow As the return currents of a microstrip ground plane are flowing directly under the microstrip that is carrying the signal currents (Fig 1010), the ground plane must never be broken, or an unexpected impedance discontinuity will result within the microstrip Always terminate all microstrip transmission lines with their characteristic impedance to avoid unpredictable reactive effects
High-speed digital design A digital signal s rise and fall time, and not its frequency, govern the signal s speed as it relates to PCB design The traces for a
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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