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drop approximately 3 dB from each input signal, will send the remainder into the step attenuator The step attenuator permits the operator to vary both of the two signal generators amplitudes by exactly the same amount at the same time, speeding up testing From the attenuator the two-tone test signal is placed into the input of the receiver at the desired amplitude, while the level of the third-order IMD products are measured as dB below the carrier, or dBc This IMD level will then be checked to confirm that it meets the receiver s design specifications
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P1dB compression point test To reduce spectral splatter and the BER, ampli-
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fiers must be backed off a set amount from their P1dB point, the amount depending on the modulation in use We can find the P1dB by the following method: Set up test equipment as shown in Fig 247 Set the signal generator frequency to the center of the bandpass of the DUT (the amplifier) Employ attenuator pads if the amplifier s output will overdrive or damage the spectrum analyzer Increase the signal generator s power output 1 dB at a time until the spectrum analyzer s measurement does not track the input dB for dB The amplifier s P1dBINPUT will be the signal generator s output level, while the signal amplitude as read on the spectrum analyzer, plus any attenuation dialed into the attenuator, is the P1dBOUT in dBm The amplifier s third-order intercept point (TOIP) can be approximated by adding 10 dB to the P1dBOUT value
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Phase noise tests Now, more than ever, decreasing phase noise to decrease
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the BER is not an option: The lower the LO-generated phase noise, the better for the digital radio system Highly accurate phase noise testing is possible, but takes special, and very costly, equipment and test setups To perform limited-accuracy phase noise tests on any oscillator, follow the procedure below, which is useful only if the spectrum analyzer employed in the test has a lower phase noise than the DUT: 1 Attach the LO output to the spectrum analyzer s input 2 Set the spectrum analyzer to the same frequency as the LO 3 Switch on video averaging on the spectrum analyzer 4 The difference between the amplitude of the carrier and the noise amplitude, minus 10 log RBW, is approximately equal to the phase noise in dBc/Hz (RBW is the resolution bandwidth as set on the spectrum analyzer)
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Reference spur measurement To check for high reference spurs in the output of a phase-locked loop (PLL), which will damage the BER of the wireless device:
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1 Attach the PLL s VCO output to the spectrum analyzer s input 2 Set the PLL and the spectrum analyzer to the same center frequency Open the spectrum analyzer s SPAN to allow viewing of all reference spurs (reference spurs are located at fcomp above and below the PLL s output frequency, as well as at their harmonics)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Modulation
Figure 246 Setup to test two-tone third-order products of an amplifier or
receiver
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Modulation
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Figure 247 Setup to check 1-dB compression point of amplifier
Modulation
Modulation
3 Take the amplitude of the center frequency fout of the VCO, and the output level of the spurs, and subtract the two This will be the level of the actual reference spurs in dBc
Desensing test A receiver must be tested for out-of-band signal rejection, since strong off-frequency interferers can desense the receiver s low noise amplifier (LNA) if its front-end filter is not sufficiently selective, causing BER problems These powerful out-of-band signals can also cause IMD or mixing products to form in-band because of the overdriving of the LNA The test is performed by combining two RF signal generators, making one generator the desired signal source by setting it to a center in-band frequency at 80 dBm while setting the other signal generator to a frequency at either the lower or upper band edge to function as an undesired out-of-band interferer at 20 dBm Now, confirm that the gain for the desired signal does not decrease below specifications because of amplifier desensing by subtracting the input signal level in dB from the desired signal level output of the receiver Digital system test and measurement To confirm proper system operation, the following are the minimum tests that should be performed on a digitally modulated receiver Most of these tests require that a CW test signal be injected at the receiver s front end, at the center of one of its channels, and at below P1dB power levels, with the output taken from the receiver s last IF output stage Some of these tests will require a vector network analyzer Receiver tests:
1 Gain, measured in dB 2 Gain flatness across one channel, measured in dB (sweep entire channel with frequency generator) 3 Frequency accuracy after a certain warm-up period, measured in Hz 4 Frequency stability over a certain temperature range after a specified period of warm-up, measured in Hz 5 Frequency drift over a set time at 25 C, measured in Hz, from turn-on to full warm-up 6 P1dBOUT at output, measured in dBm 7 Phase noise of local oscillator at 10 kHz offset from carrier in dBc, measured in dBc/Hz/10 kHz 8 Two-tone IMD at output, measured in dBc 9 In-band internally generated spurs with no input signal, measured in dBm and Hz 10 3-dB bandwidth of a channel, measured in Hz 11 Minimum discernible signal (MDS) with zero SNR, measured in dBm
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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