barcode font for excel 2013 free Figure 313 The third-order intercept and 1 dB compression points in Software

Generating GTIN - 12 in Software Figure 313 The third-order intercept and 1 dB compression points

Figure 313 The third-order intercept and 1 dB compression points
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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When an amplifier is below its P1dB, then for every 1-dB increase in fundamental power into the amplifier, the output second-order products will increase by 2 dB, while the output third-order products will increase by 3 dB The reverse is also true: For every 1 dB decrease in the fundamental input power, the second and third orders decrease in power by 2 and 3 dB, respectively However, by increasing the desired input signals, there will reach some point where the third-order products must be (theoretically) equal to the fundamental outputs This is the third-order intercept point (TOIP) The third-order intercept point is approximately 10 to 15 dB above the P1dB compression point The TOIP is the point where, when two different (but closely spaced in frequency) input signals are placed at the amplifier s input port, the undesired output third-order products will be at the same amplitude as the desired two-tone fundamental input signals However, the output TOIP itself can never actually be reached This is because the amplifier will go into saturation before this amplitude is ever truly attained Even though Fig 313 does not show it, the third-order product s output power will gain-limit, just as the fundamental signal must, when the amplifier goes into saturation Another significant amplifier design consideration, especially important in VHF and above in any gain block, is excessive source or emitter inductance This can create instability (possible oscillatory behavior), as well as gain peaking (Fig 314), and is produced by using an emitter resistor in the amplifier design It is made worse by the addition of the emitter resistor s own bypass capacitor, long emitter leads, and even long vias to ground (even SMD chip capacitors can have 1 nH of inductance, which can fatally disrupt some amplifiers) The importance of a good impedance match from amplifier stage to amplifier stage can readily be seen by inspecting the formula below Any impedance mismatches will end in a loss of power, referred to as mismatch loss (ML), and can readily be calculated by:
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Figure 314 Gain peaking in an amplifier s response (above its passband),
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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10 log10 1
VSWR VSWR
where ML mismatch loss, dB, and VSWR voltage standing wave ratio, dimensionless units Amplifier efficiency is another meaningful specification in many applications The efficiency of an amplifier is the percentage of the RF output power compared to the RF and DC input power, and can easily be calculated by: Eff where Eff POUT PIN PDC Pout PIN P DC 100
efficiency of the amplifier, % RF output power, W RF input power, W power supplied to the amplifier by the DC bias, W
As a useful aside: In amplifier design, the desirable specifications, such as a high P1dB, low noise, high efficiency, good gain flatness, proper wideband operation, high gain, and high return loss can frequently be in opposition with each other because of real-life internal transistor design limitations 31 Small-Signal Amplifiers
311 Introduction
Small-signal amplifiers are needed to increase the tiny signal levels found at the input of a receiver into usable levels for the receiver s detector, or into the proper levels required of the final power amplifier of a transmitter These amplifiers are Class A or AB for linear operation, high sensitivity, and low distortion in digital, AM, and SSB systems A receiver s first RF amplifier will be of the small-signal, high-gain type and must not produce excessive noise, since any noise generated within this first stage will be highly amplified by later stages, decreasing the SNR Because of the high operating frequencies, RF amplifiers may sometimes be neutralized in order to counteract any possible positive feedback and its resultant self-oscillations However, designing with a transistor that has unconditional stability at the frequency and impedance of operation has now become much more prevalent The voltage gain of the small signal amplifier can be calculated as VOUT/VIN, and when two or more are cascaded, their voltage gain is multiplied However, the decibel is more frequently used, with these values simply added, or dB dB, when stages are cascaded There are four vital considerations in any discrete RF amplifier design: the choice of the active device, the input and output impedance-matching network, the bias circuit, and the physical layout Each of these will be discussed in detail
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