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Figure 395 Standard MMIC gain block with biasing
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poor temperature stability that it varies its resistance dramatically over temperature Carbon composite resistors are recommended because of their small resistance variation over wide temperature extremes If the RBIAS does not add up to 500 ohms or more, then the gain of the MMIC stage will suffer This is because all power supplies are virtually a short circuit to RF, and RBIAS decreases this gain shorting effect on the output of the MMIC by being at a high value However, if RBIAS does not compute to be at or over 500 ohms (and it rarely is), then an RFC should be added to increase the output to this value, or RBIAS XL 500 ohms RBIAS, since it drops the excess voltage from VCC, also smoothes out any voltage fluctuations to the MMIC which would cause an unstable bias point by acting almost as a constant current source In addition, the added RFC blocks most of the RF from entering the bias VCC line by behaving as a high impedance to the RF, while the two CB s bypass any extraneous RF to ground The manufacturer s approved DC bias current for the MMIC should be followed closely because of problems with decreased gain and improper matching at lower Id levels, and device damage at higher Id levels: Id VCC Vd RBIAS
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Agilent, through empirical studies, recommends placing RBIAS at the output to the MMIC, followed by the RFC for improved performance The bypass capacitors, of course, should always be placed after the RFC, and not before, or the RF gain will decrease severely
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MMIC biasing procedure (Fig 395)
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1 Choose a VCC that will allow at least 2 V, and preferably 4 V, to be dropped across RBIAS for stability, while also supplying the MMIC with the proper V d level If RBIAS does not reach 500 ohms, use an RFC for a combined impedance of 500 ohms for both RBIAS and the RFC: RBIAS whereVd Id Vcc Vcc Id Vd
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DC voltage at the MMIC s power pin DC current into the MMIC s power pin power supply voltage
2 Check the power dissipation within the bias resistor RBIAS to allow for the appropriate safety headroom of at least double the calculated RBIAS wattage, or P 2 (I 2R) 3 Use coupling capacitors at the MMIC s input and output as described in Sec 343, MMIC Coupling and Decoupling As mentioned above, most MMIC amplifiers gain is moderately affected by a change in Id By looking at the Id versus S21 (dB) curves for a particular device, this susceptibility can readily be seen This also offers a way, with these particular amplifiers, to operate them as variable-gain amplifiers (VGAs) as long as stability is not adversely affected Gain variations of 5 to 15 dB are possible, depending on the MMIC, by varying Id through an AGC circuit A MMIC should be used as a VGA only for low-level signals, since the P1dB will also decrease along with the Id and gain of the MMIC The exact value of the gain variations obtained will differ slightly with the input frequency The above describes biasing and operation of the most prevalent MMIC, the current-biased MMIC However, some MMICs, such as Agilent s MGA-85563 LNA MMIC (Fig 396), are voltage-biased This type of MMIC operates quite well when only low values of VCC are available (since no RBIAS is required) at low current draw levels This makes it perfect for portable battery-powered applications Some MMICs can be adopted to limit output signal amplitudes for modulations that employ a constant modulation envelope, like common FM A MMIC with a hard saturating characteristic, as well as high gain, is required for this application such as the INA series of MMICs Since almost all MMICs will vary in both gain and saturation level, depending on bias current draw, the bias point of these MMIC limiters must not be allowed to vary with large RF drive transitions, and the factory-recommended bias current levels should be maintained to limit harmonic output Maintaining this constant bias point in limiter applications can best be accomplished by using the biasing circuit as shown in Agilent s Application Note AN-S003
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