barcode font for excel 2010 Oscillator Design in Software

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Oscillator Design
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Oscillator Design
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Figure 42 An amplifier with degenerative feedback cannot oscillate
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Figure 43 An amplifier with regenerative feedback can
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tions in , and to stabilize the active device over wide temperature variations All of these variables must be set by a proper bias network A vital parameter of any oscillator circuit will be its Q A high-Q feedback oscillator [such as the crystal or surface acoustic wave (SAW) types] will have a more frequency-stable output than an LC oscillator This is because variances in the transistor s reactances caused by changing VCC, temperature, as well as lot variations from transistor to transistor, will cause far less frequency shifts than a low-Q (LC) oscillator The proper choice of each of the components for an oscillator is very important, since even the passive components can have a significant impact on oscillator operation Unless frequency compensation is desired, the oscillator s feedback network capacitors should be NPO for minimum frequency drift under normal temperature variations The proper choice of the active device is also critical Transistors with a very high ft compared to the oscillation frequency work much better in oscillator circuits than those with marginal ft specifications This is due to the transistor s ability, at a high ft, not only to maintain its 180 degree phase shift at higher frequencies (an amplifier s phase shift begins to drop from 180 degrees as frequency increases), but also to have a higher feedback gain Most oscillators should be extensively decoupled from any noise and intermittent voltage variations of the power supply, and injection of the oscillator s own RF into the mains should be avoided, in all modern wireless applications
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Oscillator Design
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41 Oscillator Simulation
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412 Introduction
The following technique of open-loop oscillator design, as well as more LC and crystal oscillator topographies, can be found in further detail in the classic oscillator text by Randall W Rhea, Oscillator Design and Computer Simulation These design procedures, as popularized by both Rhea and R Matthys, have made oscillator design a simple and far more repeatable procedure than in the past Formally, it was either a horribly mathematically intensive procedure with an uncertain outcome or simply copying a particular oscillator design and empirically swapping out the frequency-determining components until the oscillator functioned as close as possible to the desired specifications
413 Open-loop design
Open-loop design of an oscillator involves opening the feedback loop of the oscillator from the transistor s output, back to the resonant phase-shifting network (Fig 44), within our linear simulation software We then insert a software tool called a Bode plotter within this open loop After the software design and simulation of the oscillator is complete, the open loop will be closed, and a fully functioning oscillator will have been completed Much of the preliminary design optimization of an oscillator can be assisted by software programs, such as the included PUFF linear simulator, or the high-end Genesys simulator available from Eagleware Within these two programs we can display the gain and phase of a signal as it passes through the oscillator s open-loop circuits The tool that allows us to view this gain and phase is the Bode plotter (Fig 45) The Bode plotter inserts a reference signal into the input of a circuit while sweeping through a range of frequencies, and can be found in both a Spice and a linear simulator The signal that is placed into the circuit from the Bode plotter can be considered to be at zero gain and zero phase shift Thus, any gain either positive or negative or any phase shift that occurs to the Bode s original swept input frequency after it passes through the circuit will be read on the Bode plotter s window and displayed as frequency versus gain and frequency versus phase shift in dB and degrees, respectively This allows us to view what happens to a signal at the output of a circuit as the input of this same circuit is swept in frequency at a constant
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