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Understanding Relational Databases
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E X A M P L E 42
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List all columns and rows of the Faculty table The resulting table is shown in two parts SELECT * FROM Faculty
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FacSSN 098-76-5432 543-21-0987 654-32-1098 765-43-2109 876-54-3210 987-65-4321 FacFirstName LEONARD VICTORIA LEONARD NICKI CRISTOPHER JULIA FacLastName VINCE EMMANUEL FIBON MACON COLAN MILLS FacCity SEATTLE BOTHELL SEATTLE BELLEVUE SEATTLE SEATTLE FacState WA WA WA WA WA WA FacDept MS MS MS FIN MS FIN FacRank ASST PROF ASSC PROF ASST ASSC FacSalary $35,000 $120,000 $70,000 $65,000 $40,000 $75,000
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FacSSN 098-76-5432 543-21-0987 654-32-1098 765-43-2109 876-54-3210 987-65-4321
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FacSupervisor 654-32-1098 543-21-0987 654-32-1098 765-43-2109
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FacHireDate 10-Apr-1995 15-Apr-1996 01-May-1994 11-Apr-1997 01-Mar-1999 15-Mar-2000
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FacZipCode 98111-9921 98011-2242 98121-0094 98015-9945 98114-1332 98114-9954
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Example 43 depicts expressions in the SELECT and WHERE clauses The expression in the SELECT clause increases the salary by 10 percent The AS keyword is used to rename the computed column Without renaming, most DBMSs will generate a meaningless name such as ExprOOl The expression in the WHERE clause extracts the year from the hiring date Because functions for the date data type are not standard, Access and Oracle formula tions are provided To become proficient with SQL on a particular DBMS, you will need to study the available functions especially with date columns
E X A M P L E 43
Expressions in SELECT a n d W H E R E Clauses
(Access)
t n e
n a m e
^ city, and increased salary of faculty hired after 1996 The y e a r function
extracts the year part of a column with a date data type SELECT FacFirstName, FacLastName, FacCity, FacSalary*11 AS IncreasedSalary, FacHireDate FROM Faculty WHERE year(FacHireDate) > 1996
FacFirstName NICKI CRISTOPHER JULIA FacLastName MACON COLAN MILLS FacCity BELLEVUE SEATTLE SEATTLE IncreasedSalary 71500 44000 82500 FacHireDate 11-Apr-1997 01-Mar-1999 15-Mar-2000
4
Query Formulation with SQL
EXAMPLE (Oracle)
Expressions in SELECT a n d W H E R E Clauses The t o _ c h a r function extracts the four-digit year from the FacHireDate column and the t o _ n u m b e r function converts the character representation of the year into a number
SELECT FacFirstName, FacLastName, FacCity, FacSalary*11 AS IncreasedSalary, FacHireDate FROM Faculty WHERE to_number(to_char(FacHireDate, 'YYYY') ) > 1996
Inexact matching supports conditions that match some pattern rather than matching an identical string One of the most common types of inexact matching is to find values hav ing a common prefix such as "IS4" (400 level IS Courses) Example 44 uses the LIKE op erator along with a pattern-matching character * to perform prefix matching The string constant 'IS4*' means match strings beginning with "IS4" and ending with anything The wildcard character * matches any string The Oracle formulation of Example 44 uses the percent symbol %, the SQL:2003 standard for the wildcard character Note that string constants must be enclosed in quotation marks
E X A M P L E 44 (Access)
Inexact Matching w i t h t h e LIKE Operator [_j
st t n e se
nior-level IS courses
SELECT* FROM Course WHERE CourseNo LIKE 'IS4*'
CourseNo IS460 IS470 IS480 CrsDesc SYSTEMS ANALYSIS B U S I N E S S DATA COMMUNICATIONS FUNDAMENTALS OF DATABASE MANAGEMENT CrsUnits 4 4 4
EXAMPLE (Oracle)
Inexact Matching w i t h t h e LIKE Operator List the senior-level IS courses
SELECT* FROM Course WHERE CourseNo LIKE 'IS4%'
Beginning with Access 2002, the SQL:2003 pattern-matching characters can be used by specifying ANSI 92 query mode in the Options window Since earlier Access versions do not support this option and this option is not default in Access 2002, the textbook uses the * and pattern-matching characters for Access SQL statements Most DBMSs require single quotes, the SQL:2003 standard Microsoft Access allows either single or double quotes for string constants
Part Two
Understanding Relational Databases
BETWEEN-AND operator a shortcut operator to test a numeric or date column against a range of values The BETWEEN-AND oper ator returns true if the column is greater than or equal to the first value and less than or equal to the second value
Another common type of inexact matching is to match strings containing a substring To perform this kind of matching, a wildcard character should be used before and after the sub string For example, to find courses containing the word DATABASE anywhere in the course description, write the condition: CrsDesc LIKE "DATABASE* in Access or CrsDesc LIKE '%DATABASE%'in Oracle The wildcard character is not the only pattern-matching character SQL:2003 specifies the underscore character _ to match any single character Some DBMSs such as Access use the question mark to match any single character In addition, most DBMSs have patternmatching characters for matching a range of characters (for example, the digits 0 to 9) and any character from a list of characters The symbols used for these other pattern-matching characters are not standard To become proficient at writing inexact matching conditions, you should study the pattern-matching characters available with your DBMS In addition to performing pattern matching with strings, you can use exact matching with the equality = comparison operator For example, the condition, CourseNo = 'IS480' matches a single row in the Course table For both exact and inexact matching, case sensi tivity is an important issue Some DBMSs such as Microsoft Access are not case sensitive In Access SQL, the previous condition matches "is480", "Is480", and "iS480" in addition to "IS480" Other DBMSs such as Oracle are case sensitive In Oracle SQL, the previous con dition matches only "IS480", not "is480", "Is480", or "iS480" To alleviate confusion, you can use the Oracle upper or lower functions to convert strings to upper- or lowercase, respectively Example 45 depicts range matching on a column with the date data type In Access SQL, pound symbols enclose date constants, while in Oracle SQL, single quotation marks enclose date constants Date columns can be compared just like numbers with the usual comparison operators (=, <, etc) The BETWEEN-AND operator defines a closed interval (includes end points) In Access Example 45, the BETWEEN-AND condition is a shortcut for FacHireDate >= #1/1/1999# AND FacHireDate <= #12/31/2000#
E X A M P L E 45 (Access)
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