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conditions with aggregate functions, a HAVING clause should accompany the G R O U P B Y clause For example, the problem "list the offer number o f course offerings with more than 3 0 students" needs a HAVING clause with a condition involving the C O U N T function After answering these questions, y o u are ready to convert the database representation into a database language statement To help in this process, y o u should develop a collection o f statements for each kind o f relational algebra operator using a database that y o u understand well For example, y o u should have statements for problems that involve j o i n operations, joins with grouping, and joins with grouping conditions A s y o u increase your understanding o f SQL, this conversion will b e c o m e easy for most problems For difficult problems such as those discussed in Section 45 and 9, relying o n similar problems may be necessary because difficult problems are not c o m m o n
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Let's apply your query formulation skills and knowledge o f the SELECT statement to more difficult problems A l l problems in this section involve the parts o f SELECT discussed in Sections 42 and 4 3 The problems involve more difficult aspects such as joining more than two tables, grouping after joins o f several tables, joining a table to itself, and traditional set operators
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We begin with a number o f j o i n problems that are formulated using cross product opera tions in the FROM clause This w a y to formulate joins is known as the cross product style because o f the implied cross product operations The next subsection uses j o i n operations in the FROM clause to contrast the ways that joins can be expressed In Example 4 2 3 , some student rows appear more than once in the result For example, Roberto Morales appears twice B e c a u s e o f the 1-M relationship between the Student and Enrollment tables, a Student row can match multiple Enrollment rows
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lists tables in the FROM clause and join condi tions in the WHERE clause The cross prod uct style is easy to read but does not support outer join operations
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EXAMPLE 423
joining T w o Tables List the student name, offering number, and grade of students w h o have a grade > 35 in a course offering
SELECT StdFirstName, StdLastName, OfferNo, EnrGrade FROM Student, Enrollment WHERE EnrGrade >= 35 AND StudentStdSSN = EnrollmentStdSSN
StdFirstName CANDY MARIAH HOMER ROBERTO BOB ROBERTO MARIAH LUKE BOB WILLIAM StdLastName KENDALL DODGE WELLS MORALES NORBERT MORALES DODGE BRAZZI NORBERT PILGRIM OfferNo 1234 1234 4321 4321 5679 5679 6666 7777 9876 9876 EnrGrade 35 38 35 35 37 38 36 37 35 4
Part Two
Understanding Relational Databases Examples 4 2 4 and 425 depict duplicate elimination after a join In Example 4 2 4 , s o m e students appear more than once as in Example 4 2 3 Because only columns from the Student table are used in the output, duplicate rows appear W h e n y o u join a parent table to a child table and show only columns from the parent table in the result, duplicate rows can appear in the result To eliminate duplicate rows, y o u can use the D I S T I N C T keyword as shown in Example 4 2 5
EXAMPLE 424
Join w i t h Duplicates List the names of students w h o have a grade > 35 in a course offering SELECT StdFirstName, StdLastName FROM Student, Enrollment WHERE EnrGrade >= 35 AND StudentStdSSN = EnrollmentStdSSN StdFirstName CANDY MARIAH HOMER ROBERTO BOB ROBERTO MARIAH LUKE BOB WILLIAM StdLastName KENDALL DODGE WELLS MORALES NORBERT MORALES DODGE BRAZZI NORBERT PILGRIM
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